Doctorate Degrees in Biological and Life Sciences

Compare 108 PhD Programs in Biological and Life Sciences

Biological and Life Sciences

What Is a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

A PhD in Biological and Life Science is a science doctoral program focusing on the study of living organisms, including biology, ecology, evolution and neuroscience.

What Are the Benefits of Taking a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

Students who earn a PhD in Biological and Life Science will be well prepared for research-based positions in these fields. These students can also teach biological and life science topics on the university level.

How Much Does It Cost to Take a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

The cost for any doctoral program will vary depending on the school chosen and the location of study.

What Are the Requirements for a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

Doctoral programs have strict prerequisites for acceptance. For biological and life science programs, students will need undergraduate and master's level training in the subject field to provide the foundation for future study. Test scores or average grade level requirements may also limit the students who enter these programs.

What Kind of Career Improvement Can You Expect with a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

A PhD in Biological and Life Science is the foundation for a career as a scientific researcher or instructor. These doctors are on the forefront of medical and biological research. They are the established authorities in these fields and often publish their findings in prestigious journals.

Why Take an Online PhD in Biological and Life Science?

Online PhD in Biological and Life Science programs allow students to study in the comfort of their own homes and on a schedule that works for them. This makes the program convenient.

Where to Take a PhD in Biological and Life Science?

Because it is a fairly standard program, interested students can find PhD in Biological and Life Science programs in universities that have PhD programs. Often those schools that focus on the math and science areas strongly are the best choice for this program. Use the search below to find a program that fits your needs.

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PhD in Chemical and Biological Engineering

Koc University - Istanbul Turkey
Campus Full time 4 - 5 years September 2017 Turkey İstanbul

Chemical & Biological Engineering is a discipline that integrates chemistry and biology at the molecular level and uses this broad foundation along with engineering fundamentals to study the [+]

PhD in Chemical and Biological Engineering

 

Chemical & Biological Engineering is a discipline that integrates chemistry and biology at the molecular level and uses this broad foundation along with engineering fundamentals to study the synthesis of new processes and products. Our graduate program in Chemical and Biological Engineering is an interdisciplinary program that combines chemical engineering fundamentals and systems biology to meet the research challenges of the future. The research areas of interest are:

 

Dug Discovery Tissue Engineering Plant Biotechnology Protein-Protein Interactions Protein Folding Process Dynamics, Control and Optimization Systems Engineering Catalysis Supercritical Fluids Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials Fuel Cells and Sustainable Development Computational Fluid Dynamics Polymer Science and Engineering Microfluidics Biological Clock Interaction Networks and Pathways Modeling of metal organic frameworks for energy applications Molecular simulations of crystalline nanoporous membranes for gas separations Computational studies of adsorption and diffusion in porous materials Supercritical fluids and ionic liquids ... [-]

Postdoctoral Professional Masters (PPM)

Keck Graduate Institute
Campus Full time Part time 9 - 36 months August 2017 USA Claremont + 1 more

The Postdoctoral Professional Masters (PPM) is a groundbreaking professional masters program for post-doctoral students with backgrounds in science and engineering. [+]

The Postdoctoral Professional Masters (PPM) is a groundbreaking professional masters program for post-doctoral students with backgrounds in science and engineering. This accredited masters degree helps PhD scientists and engineers acquire the business and management skills needed to pursue senior management positions within the life sciences industry or embark on entrepreneurial ventures that are intended to commercialize technologies developed in laboratories. The program curriculum focuses on the unique business environment within the life sciences. Courses combine traditional training in issues such as competitive strategy and marketing with specialized topics such as the role of regulation and medical reimbursement in determining the viability of life science market opportunities. The program also includes courses in accounting, finance, and organizational behavior that will help scientists and engineers understand how bioscience companies are managed. These skills are often essential in enabling effective teamwork between the technical and business employees of life science companies. Program students interested in launching their own business have the opportunity to enroll in specialized courses in entrepreneurship. These offerings include courses focused on building and managing entrepreneurial organizations, as well as an applied course in which teams of students develop business plans for emerging life science companies. Postdoctoral students in this program participate in KGI's capstone Team Masters Project on teams of 3-5 students working on industry-sponsored projects in addition to the coursework of the nine-month program. KGI's strong corporate network provides graduates with a unique bridge from academia to the life sciences industry. This networking begins upon enrollment in the... [-]

PhD in Biomedical Sciences: Biology

Lithuanian Sports University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Lithuania Kaunas

PhD studies in the area of Biology at LSU started in 1993. In the period of 1993 – 2013, 61 doctors of science were trained. In 2011, joint doctoral studies in Biological Sciences of Lithuanian Sports University and the University of Tartu (Estonia) were launched [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. PhD studies in the area of Biology at LSU started in 1993. In the period of 1993 – 2014, 65 doctors of science were trained. In 2011, joint doctoral studies in Biological Sciences of Lithuanian Sports University and the University of Tartu (Estonia) were launched. Joint LSU and UT PhD studies in Biology consolidated research in the area of Biology, and they ensure more integrated and substantial investigations of scientific problems in biology. Research of doctoral students in Biological Sciences involves many branches of biology: - Physiology, - Biomechanics, - Bioinformatics, - Histology, - Genetics, - Animal anatomy and morphology, - Animal physiology; - Endocrinology, - Immunology, - General pathology, - Gerontology, - Biochemistry, - Neurology, - Anatomy/morphology, - Epidemiology, - Molecular biophysics. The duration of doctoral studies is 4 years. Qualification of persons to be admitted Having a Master's or equivalent qualification degree in the field of Biomedical Sciences or: - The field of Biochemistry (04P) , - The field of Veterinary Medicine (02A), - The field of Zoological Techniques (03A) - Branches of Physical Education, Motor Learning, Sport (S273) or Research Methodology (S274). [-]

PhD in Biological and Biomedical Sciences

Hamad bin Khalifa University
Campus Full time September 2017 Qatar Doha

The multidisciplinary, taught programs are tailored to focus on fields that are central to the long-term aspirations and needs of Qatar and the region. They have been designed to train the next generation of scientists to be able to capitalize on a full spectrum of knowledge across the life sciences and to give students all the skills they need to translate research findings into clinical benefits... [+]

PhD in Biological and Biomedical Sciences Hamad bin Khalifa University’s Biological and Biomedical Sciences Ph.D. programs expose graduate students to state-of-the-art basic, clinical, and translational life sciences research. The multidisciplinary, taught programs are tailored to focus on fields that are central to the long-term aspirations and needs of Qatar and the region. They have been designed to train the next generation of scientists to be able to capitalize on a full spectrum of knowledge across the life sciences and to give students all the skills they need to translate research findings into clinical benefits. The Biological and Biomedical Sciences program are delivered by highly experienced faculty from around the world, who have been handpicked based on their expertise and competence in key subject areas. Admissions requirements Applicants seeking admission to the Biological and Biomedical Sciences (BBS) graduate program must have a bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution. They must have an excellent undergraduate academic record with a strong background in science and evidence of coursework in biological or medical sciences. Particularly for admission to the Ph.D. program, prior research experience will be seen as favorable. In addition, applicants with a background in computer science, engineering, or mathematics will also be considered if they are interested in pursuing studies in bioinformatics and computational biology. Applicants are required to take the IELTS or TOEFL exam in order to demonstrate their proficiency in English. Applicants who are fluent in English may be exempt from this requirement. While the GRE is not required for... [-]

Philosophia Doctorate In Animal Production And Natural Resources

Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua
Campus Full time 8 semesters July 2017 Mexico Chihuahua

The program is aimed at the integral formation of human resources at the graduate level, to engage in generation, validation and / or transfer of knowledge and training of professionals, are responsive to innovative proposals and supported knowledge to demands solution to the problem of animal production systems, sustainable use and exploitation of natural resources in Chihuahua, Mexico and even beyond. [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. The program is aimed at the integral formation of human resources at the graduate level, to engage in generation, validation and / or transfer of knowledge and training of professionals, are responsive to innovative proposals and supported knowledge to demands solution to the problem of animal production systems, sustainable use and exploitation of natural resources in Chihuahua, Mexico and even beyond. To do this, the program develops in the student different generic and specialty skills in four areas of expertise: Animal Nutrition, Animal Breeding and Genetics, Natural Resources Management and Technology of Animal Products. Mission and Vision MISSION To train specialized human resources, high-level scientific and comprehensive skills to contribute to national development, the development of proprietary technology and sustainability of production, through the generation, application, dissemination and transfer of knowledge to problem solving and innovation in animal production systems and care and responsible use of natural resources, in favor of a better quality of life in the regional and national context. VISION 2018 The program Doctor in Philosophia in Animal Production and Natural Resources is a national and international reference, with high social relevance, recognized by the academic productivity impact of its results and the quality in the training of human resources committed to the generation and application responsible and innovative knowledge to solve problems of the food industry, natural resources and the environment; and the development of the state and national higher education. It has high-level academic bodies, able to analyze and... [-]

PhD in Marine Environmental Science

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 4 years September 2017 Hong Kong

The PhD program seeks to train students in original research in Marine Environmental Science and to cultivate the independent and innovative thinking that is essential for a successful research career in environmental science. [+]

The Environment has been degrading at an alarming rate mainly due to the unsustainable development and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Although environmental conservation has developed significantly over the past few decades, environmental problems have been evolving both in terms of nature and scale. Methods of resolving many environmental problems remain controversial. The PhD program seeks to train students in original research in Marine Environmental Science and to cultivate the independent and innovative thinking that is essential for a successful research career in environmental science. Students are required to attend and present seminars, undertake coursework and conduct thesis research. Students must also pass a qualifying examination and a successful defense of a thesis is required. Research Foci The Environment Science Programs have three main research themes as follows: Air and Water: Includes their relation to climate change. Environmental Change: Studies investigate on regional and local scales, and explore their global effects and implications. Economic and Social Impact: The effect of and solutions to environmental problems. Admission Requirements i. General Admission Requirements Applicants seeking admission to a master's degree should have: obtained a bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution, or an approved equivalent qualification; ii. English Language Admission Requirements You have to fulfill English Language requirements with one of the following proficiency attainments*: TOEFL-iBT 80 TOEFL-pBT 550 IELTS (Academic Module) Overall score: 6.0 and all sub-scores: 5.5 *If your first language is English, and your bachelor’s degree or equivalent qualification was awarded by an institution where the medium of instruction... [-]

PhD in Food Science & Engineering

Dalian Polytechnic University
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 China Dalian

PhD in Food Science & Engineering [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. PhD in Food Science & Engineering Admission Requirements Holding a master’s degree Two Recommendation Letters from Professors Passing DPU Admission Examination Being aged at 18 to 45 Minimum Requirement of HSK 6 Level Application Procedures "“Application Form For International Students To Study In DPU” 1 Copy of Bachelor degree certificate Transcripts Recommendations of two professors or associate professors 6 photos (3cmX4cm) 1 copy of passport" Scholarships Types Amount(RMB) Chinese Government Scholarship: According to《Measures of Chinese Government Scholarship Status》 Liaoning Government Scholarship: According to《Measures of Liaoning Government Scholarship Status》 Dalian Municipal Government Scholarship: 15,000RMB/year DPU First-class Scholarship: 3,000RMB/year DPU Second-class Scholarship: 2,000RMB/year DPU Third-class Scholarship: 1,000RMB/year Individual Scholarship for Activities: 500RMB/year [-]

PhD in Tropical Knowledge and Management

Nova School of Business and Economics
Campus Full time 4 years October 2017 Portugal Lisbon

The aim of the TropiKMan Programme is to give PhD students in agrobiotechonology, health sciences and agribusiness and governance for development an entrepreneurial attitude, it also provides an opportunity for inventors, innovators and businesses to showcase their inventive and innovative ideas, projects and processes to potential investors, mentors, government officials and the public. [+]

TropiKMan links natural and environmental sciences with management. The aim of the TropiKMan Programme is to give PhD students in agrobiotechonology, health sciences and agribusiness and governance for development an entrepreneurial attitude, it also provides an opportunity for inventors, innovators and businesses to showcase their inventive and innovative ideas, projects and processes to potential investors, mentors, government officials and the public. TropiKMan aims at bridging knowledge of several disciplines to tackle scientific problems in tropical regions with management perspective and train students with innovative and entrepreneurial attitudes. It is an opportunity for applicants to realize the potential commercial value of their knowledge, invention or innovation and contribute to the export and employment potential of the tropical regions. Benefits of a Tropical Knowledge and Management Diversify management base Strengthen existing capacity and capability Improve productivity Maximise networking and innovation and Position (Angola, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Mozambique, etc) as world leaders in tropical knowledge and innovation Bring multiple benefits across a range of sectors: health, energy, etc Build knowledge, training and skills facilitation – increasing the available skilled workforce What a TropiKMan PhD can expected: Promote the capture and sharing of tropical knowledge across the world, Support increased economic resilience and diversification Improve innovation Drive export of tropical knowledge and products, including natural resource management services, tropical health service delivery for remote areas, agriculture and agribusiness, and governance for development. Drive tropical knowledge relationships across the regions Delivery of tangible benefits from commercialization of products, ideas, knowledge and concepts. Program Structure TropiKMan... [-]

Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology

AIMST University
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 8 years Open Enrollment Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Kedah + 2 more

The objective of the postgraduate programme is to provide graduate students with the opportunity to enhance their knowledge through independent research in a selected branch of Biotechnology. This will enable graduates to be competent in handling basic and applied research in their chosen specialties. [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology The Faculty of Applied Sciences (FAS) was the second Faculty to be set up at AIMST. It has set its goals to promote cutting-edge multidisciplinary programmes in which are infused the elements of innovativeness and technopreneurship designed to enhance market competitiveness. Currently, the Faculty has only one department, which is Department of Biotechnology. Under this department, FAS offers its own three-year degree programme with honors i.e. BSc (Hons) in Biotechnology (BT). In addition to BSc course, Master of Science (MSc) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Biotechnology (by research) are also offered by FAS through Department of Biotechnology. Postgraduate programs are becoming popular among the students and the numbers of students are increasing every year. The objective of the postgraduate programme is to provide graduate students with the opportunity to enhance their knowledge through independent research in a selected branch of Biotechnology. This will enable graduates to be competent in handling basic and applied research in their chosen specialties. Programme Outline Year 1 Basic Chemistry Genetics Molecular Biology Microbiology Biochemistry Biocomputing Co-curriculum Social Service Biophysics Biodiversity Year 2 Genetic engineering Bioinstrumentation Cell culture Immunology Food technology Biostatistics Industrial training Plant science Human physiology Downstream processing Virology Biotech trends Algal & fungal sciences Year 3 Molecular modelling Environmental biotechnology Research methodology Biomolecular diagnostic Business management Bioethics, bioregulation & biosafety Research project Biomaterials Metabolomics Pharmacogenomics Molecular pathogenesis Aquaculture Nanobiotechnology Medical biotechnology Forensic sciences Career Options With the launching of the National... [-]

PhD In Biotechnology (DBT)

Tecnológico de Monterrey
Campus Full time 9 semesters July 2017 Mexico Monterrey

PhD graduates in biotechnology professionals from ITESM are able to function in the academic, scientific and industrial field, both in implementation and knowledge generation. This allows them to develop innovative and sustainable technology for the benefit of society. [+]

Description The high demand to develop and optimize processes in industrial, food, agriculture, health and diagnostics sectors, among others, has encouraged the incorporation of biotechnological techniques for generating new products and services. Thus developments in the field of biotechnology, manage to benefit a large segment of the population, given its vast areas of application. Graduates of professionals PhD in Biotechnology ITESM are able to function in the academic, scientific and industrial field, both in implementation and knowledge generation. This allows them to develop innovative and sustainable technology for the benefit of society. Target Doctorate in Biotechnology aims: Train scientists capable of producing scientific knowledge to establish innovative technologies relevant to the art biotechnology sector, with particular emphasis on the food and pharmaceutical areas and life sciences. Train leaders or collaborators in the research areas mentioned within groups of national and international research. Particularly within the program seeks to train researchers: Independent, capabilities, knowledge and skills to identify opportunities, develop and manage relevant projects and relevant to the development of Mexico biotechnological research. Recognized for its ability to create awareness and promote technological solutions in the biotechnology area research centers, sectors: productive, educational, academic and social life. Able to link with the productive sector so that the fruits of research are translated into improved technologies, processes and products that drive the country's development. Able to create, disseminate and transmit knowledge in an ethical manner with a high sense of responsibility and social commitment. Addressed to Doctorate in Biotechnology is aimed at:... [-]

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University (PhD)

Hirosaki University
Campus Full time Part time 3 years April 2018 Japan Hirosaki + 1 more

"The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University. (PhD)" is organized on 
 the basis of three Master Courses (Agriculture or Agriculture and Life Science) of Hirosaki University, 
Iwate University, Yamagata University, the Master's Course (Animal Husbandry) of Obihiro University 
of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine, and the research facilities of each university. [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. "The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University. (PhD)" is organized on 
 the basis of three Master Courses (Agriculture or Agriculture and Life Science) of Hirosaki University, 
Iwate University, Yamagata University, the Master's Course (Animal Husbandry) of Obihiro University 
of Agricultural and Veterinary Medicine, and the research facilities of each university.
 This school is operated in close cooperation with the Master's Courses of the four universities and provides an 
independent 3 year Doctoral Course.
 Each student can choose their major advisory professor from faculty belonging to any of the constituent universities
 and other partner research institutions.
 And they attend the university where their major advisory professor belongs to. 

UGAS has 4 majors as follows.
 Bioproduction Science
 Bioresources Science
 Cryobiosystems Science
 Biotic Environment Science
 [-]

Official Doctoral Program In Neurosciences

Universidade da Coruña
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 5 years September 2017 Spain A Coruña + 1 more

Research Lines These are the research lines of this doctoral program: Anti-inflammatory drugs Cellular and circuital bases of Epilepsy. Control of excitability and modifications of synaptic plasticity [+]

Lines of investigation These are the lines of research of this doctoral program: Anti-inflammatory drugs Cellular and circuital bases of epilepsy. Control of excitability and modifications of synaptic plasticity Cellular and molecular basis of basal ganglia physiology. Modifications of synaptic plasticity in extrapyramidal pathologies such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's, dyskinesias, etc. Cellular and molecular bases of memory and learning. Phenomena of synaptic plasticity and its modifications in dementias (Alzheimer's disease), etc. Cellular and subcellular bases of the function of potassium channels and receptors for neurotransmitters in the auditory system Molecular and cellular bases of neuronal plasticity. Molecular and cellular mechanisms related to long-term neuronal plasticity. Subcellular bases mediating the association and functional coupling between receptors for neurotransmitters and ion channels in the central nervous system Biomarkers of Stroke. Development of artificial implants for regeneration of peripheral nerves Early detection of Alzheimer's disease based on the combination of different markers Dissection and search for new pharmacological targets. Study of the mechanisms of action of possible new neuroprotective drugs. Participation of mitochondria and second messengers in neurodegenerative processes. Parkinson's disease and other parkinsonisms / Dementias / Prion diseases / Dysautonomia Drug-resistant epilepsies Study of the innervation of the axonal segment of the main neurons of the cerebral cortex Study of the mechanisms of action of possible new neuroprotective drugs Study of the mechanisms that guide the visual attention and of the corticotalámicas interactions Expression of factors that prevent postlesional regeneration of nerve connections by the application of small inhibitory molecules such as... [-]

Biodiversity Management Research Degrees

University of Kent, School of Anthropology & Conservation
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 6 years August 2017 United Kingdom Canterbury + 1 more

PhD & MSc by research with an interdisciplinary and international focus. Providing training for conservation practitioners. [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. PhD & MSc by research with an interdisciplinary and international focus. Providing training for conservation practitioners. The School of Anthropology and Conservation at the University of Kent offers unique opportunities for advanced study and training in the conservation and management of biodiversity. The School is home to the Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology (DICE), a leading international research and training centre dedicated to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems around the world. Since it was founded in 1989, DICE has graduated over fifty research students, and as with all its other activities, a major characteristic of the research degree programme in biodiversity management is its international and interdisciplinary focus. The varied research interests of our academic staff allows us to offer supervision of research on a wide variety of projects on different organisms or systems and in different habitats and countries. Hence, there are specific research projects underway on species conservation, wildlife management law, tourism and conservation, and the sustainable uses of biodiversity. Academic programme A candidate undertaking a research degree must submit a thesis that demonstrates an ability to undertake an original investigation, to test an hypothesis and to understand the relationship of your field of study to a wider field of knowledge. Additionally, in the case of a doctorate, the thesis submitted must be an original contribution to knowledge or understanding in the field of investigation. For a MSc by research and thesis, a candidate is registered for 1 year of... [-]

Doctoral Programme in Biomedical Engineering

University of Minho - School of Engineering
Campus Full time 6 semesters October 2017 Portugal Braga

The main goal of the Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering (PDEBIOM), offered jointly by the Departments of Industrial Electronics, Biological Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Polymer Engineering and Informatics, School of Engineering, University of Minho, is to provide an educational environment that encourages students to develop the ability to contribute to the advancement of technology through independent and creative scientific research in the area of Biomedical Engineering. [+]

The main goal of the Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering (PDEBIOM), offered jointly by the Departments of Industrial Electronics, Biological Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Polymer Engineering and Informatics, School of Engineering, University of Minho, is to provide an educational environment that encourages students to develop the ability to contribute to the advancement of technology through independent and creative scientific research in the area of Biomedical Engineering. The scientific domain of this Doctoral Program is Biomedical Engineering, This doctoral program consists of a curricular component, with 60 ECTS, and the preparation of a PhD thesis. The conclusion of the curricular component will confer a degree of Advanced Studies in Biomedical Engineering, with a final grade obtained from the ratings of the courses that constitutes its study plan. Access to higher education The conclusion of this Doctoral degree allows the realization of research activity at post-doctoral level. Access forms Access to this cycle of studies requires an application to the School of Engineering of the University of Minho. Formal requirements May apply to the Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering, holders of Master's degree in Biomedical Engineering or legal equivalent. May also apply holders of a degree (5 years) in areas related to Biomedical Engineering with academic, scientific and professional exception, if recognized as attesting the capacity to carry out this cycle of studies by the Scientific Council of the School of Engineering. May also apply to the Doctoral Program in Biomedical Engineering candidates which meet either the requirements in paragraphs a) to c)... [-]

PhD in Agriculture

Ehime University
Campus Full time 3 years April 2018 Japan Matsuyama

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences (a 3-year doctoral program), has established a program offering three courses with instruction in English: Bioresource Production Science, Applied Bioresource Science, and Life Environment Conservation Science, which reflect the distinctive strengths of the agriculture faculties of the three participating universities. [+]

PhDs in Biological and Life Sciences. The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences (a 3-year doctoral program), has established a program offering three courses with instruction in English: Bioresource Production Science, Applied Bioresource Science, and Life Environment Conservation Science, which reflect the distinctive strengths of the agriculture faculties of the three participating universities. Agriculture is an important field of science not only for maintaining and improving the rich life of humankind, but also for preserving and improving the environment and ecosystem. We are looking for people who are motivated to explore the many possibilities of agricultural sciences. We also offer two special programs: the Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Related Sciences program and the Special Doctoral Course Program in Agricultural Sciences for Students from Asia, Africa and the Pacific Rim. These programs offer agricultural research and study enriched by a global perspective, which is enhanced by the participating international students who concentrate on research related to their specific regions. For details of General Admission and the Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture and Related Sciences program, please refer to the following URL. http://rendai.agr.ehime-u.ac.jp/english/annai/about.html [-]