The PhD is a doctoral degree, specifically called a "doctor of philosophy" degree. This is misleading because PhD holders are not necessarily philosophers (unless they earned their degree in philosophy!). That said, PhD recipients are able to engage in thought experiments, reason about problems, and solve problems in sophisticated ways.
You can only be in a position to solve advanced engineering problems if you have PhD training in engineering. To be admitted as a doctoral student, one must hold a masters degree in the Engineering or related subject and pass a comprehensive entrance exam.
Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under different governments: the UK Government is responsible for England, and the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive are responsible for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively.
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