Doctorate Degrees in Environmental Sciences

Compare 26 PhD Programs in Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

A Doctor of Philosophy is a doctorate or a doctoral degree that is the highest academic degree achievable. The holder of the degree is considered qualified to teach at university level in their field of study.

What is a PhD in Environmental Sciences? A PhD in Environmental Sciences encompasses multiple disciplines, such as ecology, biodiversity, environmental assessment, conservation, paleoecology, geology, and environmental policy. Research methods and numerical skills courses are usually part of this program so that students are familiar with statistical analysis and modeling so that they are able to conduct research. Coursework varies by institution, but may also include geography, earth science, economics, political science, and marine biology. Other possible areas of study include natural resources, quantitative analysis, social science, and water resources.

Graduates with a PhD in Environmental Sciences receive a broad interdisciplinary education and become skilled in communicating and problem solving, two major components needed to succeed in policy making and management. Candidates also gain competence in research techniques ranging from experimental and sampling design to hypothesis testing and estimation.

The cost of a PhD varies, depending on the country of study, the institution’s policies, and the program length. Contact the admissions office of the university to learn more about the degree program and its expenses.

Career prospects in environmental sciences exist in academia, where candidates can teach and conduct research. Other career possibilities are available in government and industry, such as in environmental consulting firms and major oil companies. Government positions in various agencies, such as the U.S. Geological Survey, the Environmental Protection Agency, and national laboratories, are other options. Management careers are another option, if the student’s coursework contained technology and management classes.

Online studies are accessible to you, no matter where your location is. They also deliver unique educational prospects. Search for your program below and contact directly the admission office of the school of your choice by filling in the lead form.

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PhD in Ecology

University College of Southeast Norway
Campus Full time Part time August 2017 Norway Porsgrunn Drammen Rauland + 2 more

We do research on evolutionary processes in relation to the genetic structure and selection and human issues related to environmental impacts. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. Ph.D. in Ecology The Ph.D. programme in Ecology at USN is focused on correlations between diffrent environmental impacts. What does that mean? Researching correlations between different environmental impacts means that we look further into the relationship between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, both on individual species and ecosystem levels. We do research on evolutionary processes in relation to the genetic structure and selection and human issues related to environmental impacts. Environmental research in general, and especially national and international issues related to biodiversity and sustainable use of resources, is facing increasing challenges. The need for this research is growing all over the world and environmental research has relevance for many other disciplines. The doctoral programme in ecology focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary cooperation to meet these challenges. Within the doctoral programme in ecology, we have highly qualified and motivated academic staff with broad national and international network. This provides you with a great number of choices when selecting topics for research. [-]

PhD in Environmental Engineering Sciences

Rezekne University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Latvia Rēzekne

Deeply specialised professional studies and research promote students competencies in field of environment science. Graduates are able to work in research institutions, to do the environment research work in the field of environmental engineering, to work in environmental protection institutions, local government units, industrial companies, to carry out academic work in universities, work of environmental quality assessment and research laboratories, evaluate natural resources, mining and processing, work with environmental equipment, technology and design development organizations. [+]

Deeply specialised professional studies and research promote students competencies in field of environment science. Graduates are able to work in research institutions, to do the environment research work in the field of environmental engineering, to work in environmental protection institutions, local government units, industrial companies, to carry out academic work in universities, work of environmental quality assessment and research laboratories, evaluate natural resources, mining and processing, work with environmental equipment, technology and design development organizations. Visiting professors from partner universities will be involved as teachers and advisors in the programme. Students have an opportunity to participate in Erasmus+ mobility for studies. Qualification awarded: Doctor of Engineering Sciences in Environmental Engineering Science (Dr.sc.ing.). Admission requirements: Master's or professional master's degree in the environment, environmental science, engineering or equivalent academic education. Discussion of the scientific research topic. Duration of studies: 3 years full-time studies. Study programme consists of 3 parts: Part A – compulsory courses Part B – optional courses (specialization) Part C – free elective courses. To complete study programme student has to earn 144 CP (216 ECTS). Final test, if any: Doctoral thesis. Study fee: 3200 EUR per year. If you are interested in the studies at Rezekne University of Applied Sciences fill application form at this address: http://www.rta.lv/online_application_procedure. [-]

PhD in Ecology, Spirituality, and Religion

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time September 2017 USA San Francisco

One of the most significant recent developments is the engagement of our spiritual traditions in this transformation of consciousness and society. When the moral force of the world's religions combines with the depth understanding of ecology, humanity will find itself in the very center of that profoundly mysterious process by which the Earth Community is revitalizing itself. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. A one-time $5000 scholarship is available to newly admitted students in the Ecology, Spirituality, and Religion Program for Fall 2015. We live in the midst of one of the greatest transitions in Earth's history. Humanity, having become a planetary force, is now shaping both its own future and the long-term future of millions of species of life. This decisive process occupies the most creative personalities of our time. One of the most significant recent developments is the engagement of our spiritual traditions in this transformation of consciousness and society. When the moral force of the world's religions combines with the depth understanding of ecology, humanity will find itself in the very center of that profoundly mysterious process by which the Earth Community is revitalizing itself. OUR MISSION Numerous interlocking ecological crises, including mass extinction of species, climate change, desertification, and poverty, mark the 21st century as a time of unprecedented change and challenge. This ecological devastation calls forth scientific, economic, and policy responses. Yet such standard responses often appear inadequate to the scope of the crisis. Many leading thinkers have come to understand that the ecological crisis represents a crisis of human consciousness, and requires fundamental revisioning of cultural values. The pace of global change calls for an understanding of the process by which humanity came to this crossroads in planetary history. It also calls for more enlightened ways of thinking and being in the world. The world's religious and spiritual traditions offer deep insight into... [-]

PhD in Energy Studies

University of Johannesburg
Campus Full time February 2018 South Africa Johannesburg

The purpose of the PhD in Energy Studies is to provide qualifying students with an in-depth understanding and integrated knowledge of advanced applicable theory in the field of energy studies. [+]

The purpose of the PhD in Energy Studies is to provide qualifying students with an in-depth understanding and integrated knowledge of advanced applicable theory in the field of energy studies. A PhD in Energy Studies is a pure science based research study that requires candidates to demonstrate high-level research capability and make a significant and original academic contribution at the frontiers of the discipline of specialisation. The PhD in Energy Studies demands a very high level of intellectual, theoretical and practical specialized science knowledge and insight into problems related to the field of study and of the application of advanced experimental methods and techniques of the modern research, as well as of fundamental scientific and academic values in generating, processing, interpreting and presenting research data orally and in written form. Admission to the Doctorate in Energy Studies preferably requires a Master’s in Energy Studies, although a student with a Master’s Degree in a related subject, and with appropriate experience in the energy industry, may be considered for admission. General rules of admission, as set out by the Faculty of Science and the University, apply. A thesis on a suitable subject, chosen after consultation with the Programme Co-ordinator for Energy Studies, is required for the Doctor’s Degree. The Degree conferred will be the PhD (Energy Studies). [-]

PhD in Environmental Studies

Charles University Faculty of Humanities
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Czech Republic Prague

The Environmental Studies doctoral study program contributes to the development of the environmental approaches characteristic of their interdisciplinary nature. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. Currently, there is a consensus that a comprehensive understanding of the planet’s natural system does not suffice. It is necessary to understand the complex interactions between the socio-economic system and the vital planetary systems providing societies with ecosystems and natural services. The Environmental Studies doctoral study program contributes to the development of the environmental approaches characteristic of their interdisciplinary nature. The goal of the Environmental Studies doctoral program is the advancement of knowledge which should contribute to the creation of a theoretical base for the strategy of making economic, social and cultural development sustainable, especially from an environmental perspective. The following scientific directions have been defined for the study program: - Socio-economic metabolism. - Natural services. - Relationships between health and environment. - Application of sociological and economic approaches aimed at addressing environmental issues and sustainable development. - Research topics applying environmental economics. - Socially urgent issues of public policy of sustainable development. - Legal aspects of relationships towards the environment. - Environmentally inspired topics from the perspective of philosophy, anthropology and history. - Indicators of the relationship between the environment and human activities. - Education for sustainable development. Students can come up with their own ideas for topics for doctoral training or may use topics provided by supervisors. The objective of the doctoral program Environmental Studies is to provide, in the above mentioned domains, the concept of sustainable development with support in the form of scientifically conducted research. An important aspect of the program is... [-]

PhD in Ecology

Charles University Faculty of Science
Campus Full time Part time 4 years September 2017 Czech Republic Prague + 1 more

The Ph.D. programme in Ecology is aimed at students with a background in biological or related fields such as the agricultural and environmental sciences. The study is based on current methods and processes used in actual grant projects, and focuses on the most recent issues in ecology. [+]

Ecology is dealing with interactions of groups of organisms related to their abiotic environment. The study is general, i. e. including all groups of taxonomic units. Projects with predominantly biotic interactions have priority over the study of abiotic environment: populations and community ecology, study of ecosystems. Description of the entrance examination and evaluation criteria The entrance examination has one round and is held as an interview. In exceptional cases, requested in writing by 30 April 2017, the dean can permit entrance examinations to take place via information and communication technology. During the entrance examination the candidate must demonstrate technical and linguistic skills to study the given field along with attributes necessary for scientific work. The entrance examination also takes into account the interest of the candidate in pursuing specific doctoral work with a particular supervisor and the candidate’s ability to handle this topic. The maximum score of the examination is 100 points. Conditions for admission Submission of a properly completed application, including prescribed appendices, and payment of the application fee by 30 April 2017. Completion of a master’s program of study at a university documented by a notarized copy of a diploma or certificate of equivalence of a foreign university education, or an original confirmation of completion of the required education by 30 September 2017. The requirement of submitting a notarized copy of a diploma does not apply to master’s graduates of Charles University. Applicants whose request for recognition of a foreign education has not been decided upon by 30... [-]

PhD in Atmospheric Environmental Science

The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 4 years September 2017 Hong Kong

The PhD program seeks to train students in original research in Atmospheric Environmental Science and to cultivate the independent and innovative thinking that is essential for a successful research career in environmental science. Students are required to attend and present seminars, undertake coursework and conduct thesis research. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. The Environment has been degrading at an alarming rate mainly due to the unsustainable development and the unsustainable use of natural resources. Although environmental conservation has developed significantly over the past few decades, environmental problems have been evolving both in terms of nature and scale. Methods of resolving many environmental problems remain controversial. The PhD program seeks to train students in original research in Atmospheric Environmental Science and to cultivate the independent and innovative thinking that is essential for a successful research career in environmental science. Students are required to attend and present seminars, undertake coursework and conduct thesis research. Students must also pass a qualifying examination and a successful defense of a thesis is required. Research Foci The Environment Science Programs have three main research themes as follows: Air and Water: Includes their relation to climate change. Environmental Change: Studies investigate on regional and local scales, and explore their global effects and implications. Economic and Social Impact: The effect of and solutions to environmental problems. Admission Requirements i. General Admission Requirements Applicants seeking admission to a master's degree should have: obtained a bachelor’s degree from a recognized institution, or an approved equivalent qualification; ii. English Language Admission Requirements You have to fulfill English Language requirements with one of the following proficiency attainments*: TOEFL-iBT 80 TOEFL-pBT 550 IELTS (Academic Module) Overall score: 6.0 and all sub-scores: 5.5 *If your first language is English, and your bachelor’s degree or equivalent qualification was awarded by an institution where... [-]

Environmental Science Ph.D.

Université du Québec à Rimouski UQAR
Campus Full time September 2017 Canada Rimouski Lévis

The doctorate in environmental sciences aims at the development and integration of knowledge in several multidisciplinary fields grouped under the overall theme of the analysis of the dynamics of environmental relations. [+]

The doctorate in environmental sciences aims at the development and integration of knowledge in several multidisciplinary fields grouped under the overall theme of the analysis of the dynamics of environmental relations. environmental biotechnology Cycle and water quality basic and applied ecology Atmospheric sciences and ocean Geomorphology and land use Environmental Toxicology Program Structure The Environmental Science PhD is offered in conjunction with UQAC, UQAM and UQTR. The program includes the writing of a dissertation of 60 credits to deepen a subject in an area of ​​specialization in environmental sciences. Program Structure The Environmental Science PhD is offered in conjunction with UQAC, UQAM and UQTR. The program includes the writing of a dissertation of 60 credits to deepen a subject in an area of ​​specialization in environmental sciences. Research topics Geomorphology and geography of coastal areas Quantification and modeling of coastal hazards (coastal erosion processes, flooding, landslides) Reconstruction and projection of rising sea levels and analysis of its effects on coastal areas Program of measurements and modeling of coastal ice cover, water levels and waves and analysis of their effects on the evolution of coastlines the vulnerability study of communities and coastal infrastructure to hazards in a changing climate Analysis of adaptation options for coastal communities to coastal risks Development of tools to increase the resilience of coastal communities in a context of integrated coastal zone management environmental monitoring networks in Québec maritime coasts Geomorphology and dynamics of slopes Study of slope processes: rockfall, landslide, debris flow, torrential activity, avalanches, ice... [-]

PhD in Tropical Knowledge and Management

Nova School of Business and Economics
Campus Full time 4 years October 2017 Portugal Lisbon

The aim of the TropiKMan Programme is to give PhD students in agrobiotechonology, health sciences and agribusiness and governance for development an entrepreneurial attitude, it also provides an opportunity for inventors, innovators and businesses to showcase their inventive and innovative ideas, projects and processes to potential investors, mentors, government officials and the public. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. TropiKMan links natural and environmental sciences with management. The aim of the TropiKMan Programme is to give PhD students in agrobiotechonology, health sciences and agribusiness and governance for development an entrepreneurial attitude, it also provides an opportunity for inventors, innovators and businesses to showcase their inventive and innovative ideas, projects and processes to potential investors, mentors, government officials and the public. TropiKMan aims at bridging knowledge of several disciplines to tackle scientific problems in tropical regions with management perspective and train students with innovative and entrepreneurial attitudes. It is an opportunity for applicants to realize the potential commercial value of their knowledge, invention or innovation and contribute to the export and employment potential of the tropical regions. Benefits of a Tropical Knowledge and Management Diversify management base Strengthen existing capacity and capability Improve productivity Maximise networking and innovation and Position (Angola, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Mozambique, etc) as world leaders in tropical knowledge and innovation Bring multiple benefits across a range of sectors: health, energy, etc Build knowledge, training and skills facilitation – increasing the available skilled workforce What a TropiKMan PhD can expected: Promote the capture and sharing of tropical knowledge across the world, Support increased economic resilience and diversification Improve innovation Drive export of tropical knowledge and products, including natural resource management services, tropical health service delivery for remote areas, agriculture and agribusiness, and governance for development. Drive tropical knowledge relationships across the regions Delivery of tangible benefits from commercialization of products, ideas, knowledge and... [-]

PhD in Earth Sciences & Environmental Sustainability

Northern Arizona University
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Flagstaff

The interdisciplinary Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability Doctoral program will prepare you to be part of a growing industry of leaders, scientists, and engineers addressing issues of climate change, water scarcity, natural resource demand, and environmental sustainability in the Southwest, United States, and the global community. [+]

The interdisciplinary Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability Doctoral program will prepare you to be part of a growing industry of leaders, scientists, and engineers addressing issues of climate change, water scarcity, natural resource demand, and environmental sustainability in the Southwest, United States, and the global community. You have a choice of three emphases: Earth and Planetary Systems Climate and Environmental Change Engineering Sustainable Systems Admissions Admissions requirements for this graduate program: Preference is given to students with a graduate degree from an accredited college or university of recognized standing in geology, earth sciences, environmental sciences, environmental policy & sustainability, engineering, ecology, forestry, planetary sciences or a closely related field. Minimum of a 3.00 cumulative GPA (scale is a 4.0 = A) GRE General Test Emphases Our program will reach across the applied and basic sciences and environmental policy and engineering solutions by focusing on three emphases, outlined below. Earth and Planetary Systems This emphasis will prepare you to pursue research and educational opportunities that: 1) Advance knowledge in the critical areas for society of energy, natural resources and water, and natural hazards, 2) continue the cutting edge research currently being done on the Earth and Planets, and 3) apply this knowledge in areas that bridge between the geosciences and physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. The focus area in Earth and Planetary Systems will train and educate future leaders in areas of industry with growing demands (e.g., natural resources and energy), and in government agencies that require PhD-level researchers to inform... [-]

PhD in Evolution of Ecosystems and their Protection

Matej Bel University
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 Slovakia Banská Bystrica

The main focus of the program is understanding of historical development of ecosystems before significant disturbances caused by human activities. The program accentuates a palaeological approach that corresponds very well with methods of a recent ecological research. The combination of both approaches allows recognizing the extent of the damage, the speed of their changes, and the resilience and recovery of ecosystems, too. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. PhD in Evolution of Ecosystems and their Protection The main focus of the program is understanding of historical development of ecosystems before significant disturbances caused by human activities. The program accentuates a palaeological approach that corresponds very well with methods of a recent ecological research. The combination of both approaches allows recognizing the extent of the damage, the speed of their changes, and the resilience and recovery of ecosystems, too. This information is an important starting point for modern approaches in the nature conservation, which is the second area of the study program. The graduate study comprises two parts: a study part and a research part. A plan of the study is prepared by the supervisor, and should be approved by a committee. Profile of a graduate The program aims at deepening and broadening knowledge and skills in the field of ecology, palaeology and conservation biology. A graduate should be able to use the method for obtaining data in the laboratory and in the field, and to use modern statistical methods and GIS tools. He has the skills necessary to work in a modern laboratory. He is able to achieve the original research results and present them of scientific community in the form of publications and outputs on conferences and any professional events. He is able to apply theoretical knowledge in practice in the assessment of changes in ecosystems, and can predict their future development. He is able to specify the nature conservation priorities and solve... [-]

Doctoral Programme in Sustainable Built Environment

University of Minho - School of Engineering
Campus Full time 6 semesters October 2017 Portugal Guimarães

The main objective of the Doctoral Program in Sustainable Built Environment is to create an integrated approach to this subject, covering phases of: design, construction materials and technologies, service life evaluation and durability, rehabilitation, building comfort and use of energy, construction economics and management, sustainable urban development and regeneration.Doctoral Program in Sustainable Built Environment [+]

Doctoral Program in Sustainable Built Environment The built environment has evolved to frame and facilitate nearly all human activities. Simultaneously, its constant expansion has become more and more harmful to the natural environment. The construction sector accounts for an estimated 40% of earth resources consumption and, therefore, has a crucial role to play in achieving sustainability. Urban development has special importance within the broader context of sustainability as well, while current trends predict that the number of urban dwellers will keep rising, reaching almost 5 billion by 2030 out of a world total of 8.1 billion. The main objective of the doctoral programme is to create an integrated approach to this subject, covering phases of: design, construction materials and technologies, service life evaluation and durability, rehabilitation, building comfort and use of energy, construction economics and management, sustainable urban development and regeneration. iDiSBE aims at providing a high level specialized advanced education in order to develop in the doctoral candidates the ability to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of sustainable built environment, through creative and autonomous investigation. Access to higher education The conclusion of this Doctoral degree allows the realization of research activity at post-doctoral level. Access forms Access to this cycle of studies requires an application to the School of Engineering of the University of Minho. Formal requirements The minimum requirements for applying to International Doctorate in Sustainable Built Environment are as follows: A Master Degree with a minimum grade of B- in the ECTS grading... [-]

PhD in Ecology and Environmental Health

University Fernando Pessoa
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Portugal Porto

The Doctoral Programme is related to the course’s teaching staff’s national and international research projects that have resulted in a considerable number of scientific articles. [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. Degree / Duration / ECTS 3rd (Doctorate) / 3 years (1 year: curricular plan; 2 years: thesis preparation) Coordination: Prof. Nelson Barros (nelson@ufp.edu.pt) The Doctoral Programme is related to the course’s teaching staff’s national and international research projects that have resulted in a considerable number of scientific articles. Admissions Conditions 1.1. General conditions: According to nr. 1 of article 2 of UFP’s Doctoral’s Regulation nr. 306/2008, of the 9th of June, the following can apply to this cycle of studies: 1.1.1. Applicants with an master degree or legal equivalent; 1.1.2. Applicants with an undergraduate degree, that have scholarly or scientific or professional curriculum that is recognized as bestowing capacity to complete this cycle of studies by the executive counsel of the Post-graduate Studies and Investigation School, from on now, designated as CEPI; 1.1.3. Applicants with a scholarly, scientific or professional curriculum that is recognized as bestowing capacity to complete this cycle of studies by CEPI 1.2. Specific conditions: 1.2.2. Doctoral programme in Ecology and Environmental Health: applicants must have a master degree in one of the following areas: Environment; Biology; Health Sciences or Chemistry. Study plan 1st year, 1st Semester Environment and Human Health Epidemiology Statistical Methods and Experimental Planning Dissertation Project I Research Seminar I Toxicology 1st year, 2nd Semester Ecology and Human Health Research Seminar II Dissertation Project II 2nd and 3rd years Thesis preparation [-]

International PhD Program for Environmental Science and Technology

National Central University
Campus Full time September 2017 Taiwan Taoyuan

To face the new challenges in the pollution of air, soil and water brought on by environmental change and global warming, our program is designed to equip students with superb abilities in problem analysis and solving of regional and global issues; independent innovative thinking, planning and project execution; decision-making, interdisciplinary coordination, and international communication. [+]

To face the new challenges in the pollution of air, soil and water brought on by environmental change and global warming, our program is designed to equip students with superb abilities in problem analysis and solving of regional and global issues; independent innovative thinking, planning and project execution; decision-making, interdisciplinary coordination, and international communication. The UST - International Doctoral Program in Environmental Science and Technology (UST-EST) will provide the most advanced graduate study program in interdisciplinary environmental research from the global scale to molecular level. All courses will be taught in English by a team of outstanding scholars with the further distinction of providing an unmatched Chinese-speaking surrounding and learning facilities. To ensure the highly cross-discipline nature of environmental study, all first-year students will take entry-level courses related to the four major topics, i.e., health science, physical chemistry, engineering and remote sensing techniques, before moving to specialized research work. The UST-EST program provides also the unique opportunity of joining collaborative projects in different UST campuses, either in national or international arenas. Counting together, UST has established bilateral scientific partnerships with academic institutions in the US, Germany, France, UK, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, Vietnam, Canada, South Korea, Dominica Republic, and Iceland, just to name a few. For multilateral collaborations, Taiwan is a key player to the Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) Project and the main driver for the COSMIC Meteorology Satellites Mission. The UST-EST Doctoral Program is therefore well prepared to train the next-generation leaders in the study,... [-]

Environmental Management

South East European University
Campus Full time 6 semesters September 2017 Macedonia Tetovo Skopje + 1 more

The study program aims to: Contribute to environmental trends developed in our society; Foster public opinion for solving environmental problems; Scientific Research... [+]

PhDs in Environmental Sciences. The study program aims to: Contribute to environmental trends developed in our society; Foster public opinion for solving environmental problems; Scientific Research; Career With the completion of PhD studies students acquire 180 ECTS. Their knowledge and skills can be effectively applied in the field of Environmental Management for research purposes. Also, may find employment in Institutions for environmental protection where they can apply their acquired knowledge into practice. Learning outcomes Knowledge and understanding Shows a systematic understanding of the research field and excellent knowledge of research methods and skills within that field according to the highest international standards; Advanced knowledge of the effects of natural processes that take place in the environment; Advanced environmental topics such as the greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution; Advanced knowledge on the importance of effective actions to protect and improve the environment. Applying knowledge and understanding Demonstrates ability to interpret, design, apply and adapt essential research subject with scientific integrity; Gives a contribution through original research that transcend the existing boundaries of knowledge, developing new knowledge, in the level of national and international reviewed publications; Knowledge of the environmental, economic and educational processes; Follow-up of scientific world trends. Making judgement Ability for critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas, competency assessment; Ability to independently initiate and participate in national and international research networks and events with research integrity; Ability to independently initiate research and development projects that will generate new knowledge and skills for the research field... [-]