PhD Degree in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America

Find PhD Programs in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017

Humanities and Social Sciences

A PhD, also known as a Doctor of Philosophy degree, is a doctorate awarded by a university to the academic who has met all necessary qualifications and can now be considered a doctor in his or her academic field.

A PhD in Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences focuses on human thoughts and culture. It is an advanced level of education, often focusing on student teacher relationships, advanced research methods, and higher tier courses.

The United States of America is a large country in Northern America, often known as the "USA", the "US", the "United States", "America", or simply "the States". It also gathers over 310 million people which is the world's third largest population. It includes densely populated cities with sprawling suburbs, and vast, uninhabited and naturally beautiful areas at the same time.

View all Doctoral Programs in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017

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Organization and Leadership (Ed.D.)

University of San Francisco - School of Education
Campus Full time Part time 5 years August 2017 USA San Francisco + 1 more

The Doctorate of Education (Ed.D.) in Organization and Leadership is a unique program for working professionals who see themselves as educational leaders transforming their organizations through a learning perspective. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. Preparing leaders who serve schools, community and social agencies, government, and non-profit institutions in a regional and international world. The Doctorate of Education (Ed.D.) in Organization and Leadership is a unique program for working professionals who see themselves as educational leaders transforming their organizations through a learning perspective. Program Details The Organization and Leadership (O&L) Doctoral program is comprised of 60 credits of study beyond the master's degree and culminates in the completion of a doctoral dissertation. Program Delivery To meet the needs of working professionals, the program follows a schedule of alternate weekend classes that convene nine times a semester (Friday evenings and all day Saturdays). “The size and structure of the program were appealing to me, a working professional and parent, and I was intrigued by the opportunities that existed to form strong bonds and work closely with my peers and instructors. I can confidently say that my greatest expectations were fulfilled. I had the opportunity to travel abroad, participate in experiential learning, establish close relationships, and work with dedicated and phenomenally talented professors and incredibly motivated scholars.” - Demerris R. Brooks-Immel, O&L Ed.D. Alumna Learning Outcomes The Organization and Leadership Program Learning Outcomes: The program brings before students a continuum of new knowledge and understanding that reflects current theories, research, and innovative practices. The program equips students to apply the principles of leadership theory in a broad range of settings to effectively lead individuals and organizations... [-]

PhD in Psychology - Clinical Psychology

Walden University
Online & Campus Combined Full time Part time 72 months September 2017 USA USA Online Minneapolis + 2 more

Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. [+]

Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. Completion Requirements 159 total quarter credits Core courses (106 cr.) Elective course (15 cr.) Clinical practicum (6 cr.) Dissertation (20 cr.) Internship (12 cr.) Academic Year in Residence Ph.D. residencies (4 four-day sessions) This sequence represents the minimum time to completion. Time to completion may vary by student, depending on individual progress and credits transferred, if applicable. Courses Foundations of Graduate Study in Clinical Psychology Psychopathology From a Clinical Perspective Interventions I Research, Theory, Design, and Methods Social Psychology Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis Tests and Measurement Lifespan Development Biopsychology Qualitative Reasoning and Analysis Ethics and Standards of Psychological Practice Cognitive Assessment Personality Assessment Multicultural Psychology Consultation and Supervision in Psychology Interventions II Writing a Quality Prospectus in Psychology Clinical Psychopharmacology Psychology and Social Change Advanced Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis Elective Cognitive and Affective Bases of Behavior History... [-]

PhD in Women’s Spirituality

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time September 2017 USA San Francisco

The Women's Spirituality program is located at the intersection of Women/Gender Studies, Ethnic Studies, Philosophy, and Religion. Our program honors the spiritual impulse to redress the suppression of the sacred feminine and the oppression of women. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. PhD in Philosophy and Religion with Concentration in Women's Spirituality The Women's Spirituality program is located at the intersection of Women/Gender Studies, Ethnic Studies, Philosophy, and Religion. Our program honors the spiritual impulse to redress the suppression of the sacred feminine and the oppression of women. We join with those who seek to end the exploitation of marginalized social groups and address the suffering of the Earth and its many species. Our faculty is internationally known and includes many pioneers in the interdisciplinary field of Women’s Spirituality. Overview Founded by internationally known trailblazers in the women's spirituality movement, this doctoral program is located at the intersection of women/gender studies, ethnic studies, religious studies, and philosophy. Through evening and weekend classes, online courses, and a semi-distance option, the program offers you a flexible format that allows you to integrate your studies with your professional and/or family life. Our PhD program: Offers you rigorous academic training that is grounded in transdisciplinary, spiritual, and feminist methodologies Prepares you to conduct original research in one of the following areas: Women in World Religions; Feminist and Ecofeminist Philosophy and Activism; and Women's Mysteries, Sacred Arts, and Healing Provides a community of engaged scholars who are taking leadership on national and global issues related to women, gender, ecology, and spirituality Your doctoral dissertation makes an original contribution to cross-disciplinary scholarship in this emergent field. Areas of Emphasis for the PhD in Philosophy and Religion with... [-]

PhD in Applied Linguistics

Northern Arizona University
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Flagstaff

The Ph.D. program in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University is designed to prepare future professors, researchers and teacher trainers to work independently and in leadership positions with the learning and teaching of second languages, the analysis of language, and the design of language-related research. [+]

Pursue a diverse range of issues in preparation for your career as a researcher, teacher trainer, or leader in fields related to teaching and learning second languages, including: Corpus linguistics Grammar and vocabulary Grammatical variation Language planning and policy Language testing and program evaluation Pragmatics Quantitative research methods Register and discourse analysis Second language acquisition Second language reading and writing Second language teaching and learning Speech perception and production Spoken discourse World Englishes Our faculty work closely with individual students, helping them to develop as colleagues in applied linguistics. As a result, our PhD students have an outstanding record of publication and participation in major conferences such as TESOL and AAAL. Graduates of our program have also been highly successful at obtaining tenure-track faculty positions at major universities. What Can I Do with a Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Linguistics? The Ph.D. program in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University is designed to prepare future professors, researchers and teacher trainers to work independently and in leadership positions with the learning and teaching of second languages, the analysis of language, and the design of language-related research. University Requirements To receive a Doctor of Philosophy Degree (Ph.D.) at Northern Arizona University, you must complete a planned group of courses, from one or more disciplines, ranging from at least 60-109 units of graduate-level courses. Most plans require research, a dissertation, and comprehensive exams. All plans have residency requirements regarding time spent on the Flagstaff campus engaged in full-time study. ADDITIONAL ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Admission... [-]

PhD in Color Science

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT)
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 USA Rochester

Color science research at RIT encompasses such diverse fields as medical data visualization, computer graphics and animation, art conservation, spectral and spatial measurements of materials, color printing, digital photography, motion picture and television, and modeling of our perceptions for use in defining color quality. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. Doctor of Philosophy in Color Science Color has been a topic of intense interest and inquiry for hundreds if not thousands of years. As a generalization, color science can be defined as the quantification of our perception of color. Its mastery requires an interdisciplinary educational approach encompassing physics, chemistry, physiology, statistics, computer science, and psychology. Color science is used in the design and control of most man-made colored materials including textiles, coatings, and polymers and to specify such diverse materials as soil and wine. It is used extensively in color reproduction including digital photography, desktop and projection display, and printing. As we begin the 21st century, color science is ubiquitous. Color science research at RIT encompasses such diverse fields as medical data visualization, computer graphics and animation, art conservation, spectral and spatial measurements of materials, color printing, digital photography, motion picture and television, and modeling of our perceptions for use in defining color quality. RIT has a long history of scholarship in color science. The program is designed for students whose undergraduate majors are in physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, engineering, experimental psychology, imaging, or any applied discipline pertaining to the quantitative description of color, for example, textiles, graphic arts, animation, material science, and polymer science. All students must earn 99 credits as a graduate student. For full-time students, the program requires three or more years of study at the graduate level for students entering the program with a... [-]

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Religious Studies

University of the West
Campus Full time 4 years September 2017 USA Rosemead

The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Religious Studies is an advanced research degree leading to a dissertation. Research and writing skills are developed to the level necessary to participate in professional academic discourse. A doctoral degree is awarded on the basis of evidence that the recipient possesses knowledge of a broad field of learning and expert mastery of a particular area of concentration within that field. [+]

The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Religious Studies is an advanced research degree leading to a dissertation. Research and writing skills are developed to the level necessary to participate in professional academic discourse. A doctoral degree is awarded on the basis of evidence that the recipient possesses knowledge of a broad field of learning and expert mastery of a particular area of concentration within that field. UWest offers two concentrations in its doctoral program. First, doctoral students may specialize in Buddhist Studies. This is for advanced research in the comparative study of Buddhism in relation to another religion, or the intensive study of an aspect of Buddhism, leading to a dissertation. Second, a doctoral student may choose Comparative Religions. This is for advanced research in the comparative study of religions. Progress through the doctoral program is determined by coursework, language requirements, and the successful completion of qualifying examinations and a dissertation. As a means of tailoring the program to the needs and interests of individual students, the number and content of these examinations will be individualized by the doctoral committee. Failing any qualifying examination twice in a row may result in termination of the student’s enrollment in the program. Program Learning Outcomes Wisdom & Skillful Means Students are thoroughly prepared for academic and professional success. Self-Awareness Students are prepared to engage in an ongoing process of self-understanding that enables them to lead happy, purposeful lives characterized by healthy relationships to self and others. Liberation Students recognize the diversity and dignity... [-]

Doctoral Degrees Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PSYD)

University of San Francisco - School of Nursing and Health Professions
Campus Full time 5 years September 2017 USA San Francisco

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities. [+]

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities.

Clinical Psychology PsyD from USF SONHP on Vimeo.

Stressing clinical practice, USF's PsyD program prepares doctoral students to work as health service psychologists in a variety of community health settings. Graduates will be proficient in the empirical and theoretical underpinnings of integrated, behavioral health interventions while sensitive to contextual, cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic environments of individuals and communities. Licensure and Accreditation The USF PsyD Program is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) and has Associate Member status in the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP). Graduates of the PsyD program at USF are eligible for licensure in California (and other states) as psychologists. Program Details The USF PsyD program's mission is to offer a rigorous program of study based in Jesuit values that emphasizes clinical and scholarly work with underserved populations and focuses on training culturally responsive health service psychologists to work in interprofessional, integrated behavioral health settings. PROGRAM FEATURES & DELIVERY The program consists of four years of academic study, including three years of practica (1500-2000 hours), a professional project, and a fifth year internship (1500-2000 hours applied toward licensure), typically completed at another institution. The level of complexity and the number of hours of practica increases each year. Each practicum placement takes place in the community and includes a course... [-]

Doctor of Ministry

Oral Roberts University
Campus or Online Full time Part time September 2017 USA Tulsa

The Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.) is an advanced professional degree designed to continue the education of ministers so that they may be spiritually renewed and increasingly effective in their world ministries. [+]

The Doctor of Ministry (D.Min.) is an advanced professional degree designed to continue the education of ministers so that they may be spiritually renewed and increasingly effective in their world ministries. The purpose of the program is to help ministers grow in their understandings and interpretations of the Church's ministry in relation to biblical, theological, historical, ethical and practical areas. Students are challenged to develop their ministerial skills and to refine and articulate a theology of ministry while in a setting of ministry. A distinctive of the doctoral program is the attempt to enable students to understand both the positive and the problematic aspects of the charismatic dimensions of ministry. Classes are taught in a modular format so that students may maintain their existing ministry positions while pursuing the degree. Students meet on campus for a total of six weeks over a two-year period for seminars, workshops and research clinics. However, most of the study/work is done individually in the setting of the local parish or other field of service. A feature of the degree is that students remain in a cohort group of classmates throughout the entire classroom experience. The cohort is maintained while allowing some separate classes for the two specializations - church ministry and leadership and pastoral care and counseling. Students in the two specializations have several classes in common and some classes in their separate areas of study. In each session, time is spent with the cohort group. Program Objectives This degree is designed to: -... [-]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD)

William Paterson University of New Jersey
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Wayne

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. Graduates of the doctoral program can pursue clinical and research positions in the public and private sectors. Students who want to become a psychologist must successfully complete Doctoral-level training; pass a national examination, and fulfill all state licensing requirements (e.g., the required number of state-mandated supervised hours). Facilities and Resources Our graduate programs are housed in the new and renovated facilities in Science Hall-East. These facilities include modern clinical, research, and teaching spaces, in addition to a state-of-the-art clinical teaching suite for training, monitoring, recording and conducting clinical sessions, a graduate testing and teaching room and a graduate study and informal learning space for our students. Admission Requirements In addition to the University’s admission requirements: A bachelor's degree and transcript from an accredited college or university Psychology courses require prior to... [-]

Doctor of Ministry (DMin) in Wisdom Studies

The Wisdom School at Ubiquity University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA USA Online

The DMin Program includes 40 semester credits plus a dissertation that should be completed within a period of five years from initiation of study. Extensions for a variety of personal, family and professional reasons are allowed. We are mindful that all our students are professionals with numerous obligations and responsibilities, and we are prepared to work with each student to ensure that there is enough time to complete the course of study and the dissertation. [+]

Admissions Requirements 1. Students must have a Masters degree or its equivalency. An equivalency consists of documented training beyond a bachelor’s degree that is equivalent in hours and requirements to a Masters Degree. 2. A completed Ubiquity University Admissions Application must be filed with the Office of Admissions. 3. Students are encouraged to belong to an academic research library in the area in which they live. Degree Requirements The DMin Program includes 40 semester credits plus a dissertation that should be completed within a period of five years from initiation of study. Extensions for a variety of personal, family and professional reasons are allowed. We are mindful that all our students are professionals with numerous obligations and responsibilities, and we are prepared to work with each student to ensure that there is enough time to complete the course of study and the dissertation. Applications for Continuation must be submitted to the Dean of Doctoral Studies when a student requires additional time over the five years. Each completed five-day Intensive or Pilgrimage counts as 4 credits, and each weekend intensive counts as 2 credits toward any Ubiquity University degree. Online courses and Virtual Retreats may count as 2 credits or 4 credits. Forty credits of class attendance are required for a DMin degree. An additional 14 credits are awarded for the preparation of the dissertation itself, for a total of 54 credits required for the DMin degree. Half of the course credits must be in-person learning experiences (Intensives or Pilgrimages) and... [-]

PhD in Education (with a focus on Educational Sustainability)

Nipissing University
Campus Full time July 2017 Canada Ontario

Grounded in the context of a post-modern society, and recognizing the importance of multiple perspectives, this Ph.D. program in Educational Sustainability will prepare students from a variety of fields. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. PhD in Education (Educational Sustainability) Grounded in the context of a post-modern society, and recognizing the importance of multiple perspectives, this Ph.D. program in Educational Sustainability will prepare students from a variety of fields, such as education, health, social work, social justice and administrative leadership, for sustainable educational practices in the 21st century. ​By sustainable practice we mean conducting research, teaching, and learning across disciplines, cultures, and nationalities and embracing a global vision of education that develops self-knowledge and an understanding that the relationship of the self to people, to nature, and to the designed environment is fundamental in becoming an educated person. Educational Sustainability means that within the program students and faculty members will be asking questions that take into account the social context in which we live, and consider the ways in which the world is interrelated. The purpose is to build capacity to meet the needs of present and future academics and professionals working in various social science fields who will leave the program prepared to move beyond the status quo of 20th century standard practice to create real and virtual educational environments where active learning and multiple perspectives are the foundations of individual and institutional action. The degree is designed for educators within the school system, and within the professions more generally, who will become engaged citizens who can think critically and are prepared to accept individual responsibility for the well-being of society. Throu​gh a... [-]

Doctor of Psychology (Pys.D.)

Eastern Kentucky University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Richmond

All applicants must submit a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) score. Admission is competitive and limited to available space. Meeting the minimum requirements, therefore, does not guarantee admission. [+]

Degree Options: Psy.D. Who Would be Interested in This Program? Students interested in doctoral training in Clinical Psychology who wish to practice as clinical psychologists. What Are the Requirements to be Admitted to the Program? A minimum of five undergraduate courses in psychology: general psychology, statistics, and experimental psychology are required, as well as two other courses acceptable to the departmental admissions committee. Applicants are required to submit academic transcripts for any undergraduate and graduate work, as well as complete the GRE. Candidates are encouraged to complete the GRE Psychology Subject Test if Psychology was not their major as an undergraduate. Candidates with a GPA of 3.0 or higher and GRE scores at the 50th percentile or higher will be competitive. All applicants must submit a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) score. Admission is competitive and limited to available space. Meeting the minimum requirements, therefore, does not guarantee admission. Applications should be received by January 15th. [-]

Ph.D. in Language and Literacy

Cardinal Stritch University
Campus Part time 6 semesters September 2017 USA Milwaukee

The Doctorate in Language and Literacy (Ph.D.) program prepares you to act as a literacy leader who understands theoretical and instructional models of literacy, recognizes new literacy trends in our digital age, services literacy acquisition, development and instruction, and fosters systemic change in your organization and community. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. The Doctorate in Language and Literacy (Ph.D.) program prepares you to act as a literacy leader who understands theoretical and instructional models of literacy, recognizes new literacy trends in our digital age, services literacy acquisition, development and instruction, and fosters systemic change in your organization and community. The Doctorate in Language and Literacy program is designed for educators, professionals and researchers with a background and/or interest in literacy, curriculum and instruction, speech and language or a related field. Faculty members integrate their collective expertise in Reading, Curriculum and Instruction, Writing, Special Education, and Speech and Language Pathology in the design and delivery of our innovative program. Successful completion of the program may result in Reading Teacher (license #316) and Reading Specialist (license #17) certification from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI). This may require additional coursework depending upon your prior experience, and is subject to approval by the Wisconsin DPI. Courses EDL 703 - Research Seminar A EDL 706 - Theoretical Models of Literature and Language EDL 709 - Qualitative Methodology and Design EDL 712 - Current Issues in Assessment EDL 715 - Literacy and Language Symposium EDL 716 - Research in Child Language Disorders Symposium EDL 717 - Literacy and Language Symposium EDL 720 - Writing Theory, Practice and Assessment EDL 722 - Instructional Models of Literacy and Language EDL 726 - Research Seminar B EDL 731 - Quantitative/Experimental Research Methodology/Design EDL 736 - Mixed Methods Research... [-]

Political Science

International University Alliance
Campus Full time Part time September 2017 USA Boston

Whether you want to explore issues facing the public officials who caucus in buildings just blocks from campus, or master international relations, political science students receive broad exposure to the discipline, while gaining an understanding about how politics, government and governance shape the world and its quality of citizenship. [+]

Political Science Whether you want to explore issues facing the public officials who caucus in buildings just blocks from campus, or master international relations, political science students receive broad exposure to the discipline, while gaining an understanding about how politics, government and governance shape the world and its quality of citizenship. What to Expect As a political science major, you will be selecting courses from fields such as American politics, comparative politics, international relations, public administration and policy, and political theory, while also developing one or two individualized areas of interest. You will learn how to research the answers to important questions related to politics, political values and public policy. You will benefit from a wide variety of course offerings and have the opportunity to complete a public service internship to gain hands-on experience. Graduate Degrees D Ph.D. in Political Science The College of Arts and Sciences offers a Ph.D. in political science. The doctoral program has produced many distinguished academics and public leaders, both nationally and abroad. [-]

Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Roosevelt University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Schaumburg Chicago

The Department of Psychology's Doctor of Philosophy degree in Industrial/Organizational Psychology is based on a scientist-practitioner model of professional training. [+]

Doctorate Degrees in Humanities and Social Sciences in North America 2017. Industrial/Organizational Psychology (PhD) Offered in: SCHAUMBURG The Department of Psychology's Doctor of Philosophy degree in Industrial/Organizational Psychology is based on a scientist-practitioner model of professional training. The program enrolled its first ever Ph.D. students in the fall of 2012. This group represented the first Ph.D. students in the history of the entire university. The PhD program provides a more advanced degree in the Industrial/Organizational Psychology area. Generally, Master’s and PhD's in I/O psychology have a different focus and therefore prepare students for different kinds of work. While a master’s degree is an almost purely applied degree that prepares students for application of I/O psychology principles with a focus on practical skills, the PhD is a research degree that prepares students to conduct scientific research and analyze data with a much higher degree of sophistication. While the doctoral degree can prepare one for an academic career, most I/O psychologists, even those with the PhD, work outside of academia. The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the leading professional organization for I/O psychologists, found in a 2006 membership survey that most respondents held PhDs (89% PhD, 11% master’s degree). Of these mostly PhD respondents, however, only 39% were employed by a college or university. I/O psychologists with PhDs work for companies, non-profit organizations, government, research institutes, consulting firms, and as independent consultants. They occupy roles similar to some that would be occupied by master’s-level I/O practitioners, but the PhD prepares practitioners... [-]