Doctorate Degrees in Psychology

Compare 55 PhD Programs in Psychology

Psychology

Psychology is based on scientific method and behavioral science. A Psychology PhD is a challenging but rewarding program that can open many doors to career opportunities.

There are different options for Doctoral Degree in Psychology. These include Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD), Doctor of Psychology (PsyD), and Doctorate Degree of Psychology in Education (EdD). Programs will vary by country, but generally the tracks are clinical, educational, or counseling psychology. Each Psychology PhD program allows graduates to work in a clinical setting, qualified to diagnose and treat mental disorders, conduct psychological testing and evaluations, and provide psychotherapy. As part of a Psychology PhD program, candidates will be required to complete research that leads to a dissertation that makes a scholarly contribution to the field. Those holding a Psychology PhD can work in academia, research, government, and the public and private sector.

If you are interested in furthering your career in Psychology, then a Psychology PhD may be what you are searching for. Take a look below and find the program for you!

Read More

PhD in Color Science

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT)
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 USA Rochester

Color science research at RIT encompasses such diverse fields as medical data visualization, computer graphics and animation, art conservation, spectral and spatial measurements of materials, color printing, digital photography, motion picture and television, and modeling of our perceptions for use in defining color quality. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Doctor of Philosophy in Color Science Color has been a topic of intense interest and inquiry for hundreds if not thousands of years. As a generalization, color science can be defined as the quantification of our perception of color. Its mastery requires an interdisciplinary educational approach encompassing physics, chemistry, physiology, statistics, computer science, and psychology. Color science is used in the design and control of most man-made colored materials including textiles, coatings, and polymers and to specify such diverse materials as soil and wine. It is used extensively in color reproduction including digital photography, desktop and projection display, and printing. As we begin the 21st century, color science is ubiquitous. Color science research at RIT encompasses such diverse fields as medical data visualization, computer graphics and animation, art conservation, spectral and spatial measurements of materials, color printing, digital photography, motion picture and television, and modeling of our perceptions for use in defining color quality. RIT has a long history of scholarship in color science. The program is designed for students whose undergraduate majors are in physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, engineering, experimental psychology, imaging, or any applied discipline pertaining to the quantitative description of color, for example, textiles, graphic arts, animation, material science, and polymer science. All students must earn 99 credits as a graduate student. For full-time students, the program requires three or more years of study at the graduate level for students entering the program with a baccalaureate degree. The curriculum is a combination of... [-]

PhD in Psychology - Clinical Psychology

Walden University
Online & Campus Combined Full time Part time 72 months September 2017 USA USA Online Minneapolis + 2 more

Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. [+]

Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. Completion Requirements 159 total quarter credits Core courses (106 cr.) Elective course (15 cr.) Clinical practicum (6 cr.) Dissertation (20 cr.) Internship (12 cr.) Academic Year in Residence Ph.D. residencies (4 four-day sessions) This sequence represents the minimum time to completion. Time to completion may vary by student, depending on individual progress and credits transferred, if applicable. Courses Foundations of Graduate Study in Clinical Psychology Psychopathology From a Clinical Perspective Interventions I Research, Theory, Design, and Methods Social Psychology Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis Tests and Measurement Lifespan Development Biopsychology Qualitative Reasoning and Analysis Ethics and Standards of Psychological Practice Cognitive Assessment Personality Assessment Multicultural Psychology Consultation and Supervision in Psychology Interventions II Writing a Quality Prospectus in Psychology Clinical Psychopharmacology Psychology and Social Change Advanced Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis Elective Cognitive and Affective Bases of Behavior History... [-]

PhD in East-West Psychology

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time Part time 2 years September 2017 USA San Francisco + 1 more

The program of study consists of a foundational course, research methods courses, research colloquia, advanced seminars, a student-designed area of specialization, two comprehensive exams, and a dissertation. Students focus on a specific area of study and develop methodological skills. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Students complete 36 units of coursework and write a dissertation. The program of study consists of a foundational course, research methods courses, research colloquia, advanced seminars, a student-designed area of specialization, two comprehensive exams, and a dissertation. Students focus on a specific area of study and develop methodological skills. They work closely with their advisors to design an individualized curriculum and participate in research colloquia to articulate their dissertation research project. Ph.D. Program Learning Goals and Objectives Upon completion of the Ph.D. in East-West Psychology, and in addition to M.A. goals and objectives, graduates will be able to: Goal 1. Produce original scholarly works in the field of East-West psychology and spirituality. Objective 1. Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge and expertise in a selected area of specialization within East-West studies. Objective 2. Produce work that creatively and critically interprets, compares, integrates, applies, and/or evaluates knowledge from a variety of Eastern, Western, and indigenous psychological and spiritual traditions. Objective 3. Apply critical thinking in relation to basic and complex issues of East-West cross-cultural hermeneutics, such as orientalism, ethnocentrism, critical pluralism, insider/outsider perspectives, relativism, and/or incommensurability. Goal 2. Carry out scholarly research with a methodology appropriate to their research interests. Objective 1. Design cogent, feasible, and methodologically rigorous research projects. Objective 2. Apply several qualitative and theoretical research methods (e.g., phenomenological, hermeneutic, heuristic, narrative, comparative) to their research interests. Objective 3. Carry out a complete research project that demonstrates professional methodological knowledge and skills. Goal 3. Be competent in a variety... [-]

Doctorate In Educational Sciences

Universidade de Évora
Campus Full time 3 years October 2017 Portugal Évora

This course is intended for a wide range of professionals interested in acquiring advanced and sustained training in research in the various areas of education sciences [+]

PRESENTATION This course is intended for a wide range of professionals interested in acquiring advanced and sustained training in research in the various areas of education sciences. With it is intended, in particular, that the students who attend become able to develop skills, competencies and methods in the field of education sciences; conceive, design and carry out research in education, respecting scientific quality standards; develop a susceptible advanced research project to constitute an original contribution to knowledge in a particular field of education and able to be disclosed in publications with scientific credibility; develop communication skills both written and oral with the academic community and society in general; put the skills acquired in the service of knowledge society in which we live, contributing to a critical reflection on the implications of technological progress and cultural development. Careers According to the provisions of the Decree 344/2008, of April 30, the course benefits from automatic recognition for the purposes of career development of kindergarten teachers and teachers of Basic and Secondary Education. [-]

PhD in Clinical Psychology

University of Nicosia
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Greece Athens Cyprus Nicosia + 2 more

The aims set for the program in Clinical Psychology are multi-fold covering the complexity and the multifaceted reality of the profession. These are to (a) provide the key clinical competencies and capabilities for independent and ethical clinical practice, and (b) create professionals based on the scientist-practitioner model that will be independent thinkers and producers of knowledge. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Duration (years): 3 years Qualification Awarded: Clinical Psychology (PhD, 3 years) Level of Qualification: 3rd Cycle (Doctorate) Language of Instruction: English Mode of Study: Full-time Minimum Credits: 75 Minimum ECTS Credits: 210 Profile of the Programme: Aims The aims set for the program in Clinical Psychology are multi-fold covering the complexity and the multifaceted reality of the profession. These are to (a) provide the key clinical competencies and capabilities for independent and ethical clinical practice, and (b) create professionals based on the scientist-practitioner model that will be independent thinkers and producers of knowledge Objectives By the end of their training students should be competent in the areas of I. Assessment, formulation, intervention, evaluation and communication. II. Working with a range of clients in a range of psychological/psychiatric and/or medical problems/difficulties taking into consideration the social, the educational, racial and cultural background of clients III. Applying their knowledge and expertise in order to draw on a range of evidence based psychological models and psychological therapies in their work with clients. IV. Applying their academic knowledge and skills to ask scientific questions both in an academic and in clinical context and to be able to transform these questions into research hypotheses and investigation. Career Prospects: On successful completion of the program graduates will be able to will be able to work as independent clinicians, researchers, and academics. Graduates will be able to work as Clinical Psychologists in public and private hospitals or clinics, have a private practice, work at... [-]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD)

William Paterson University of New Jersey
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Wayne

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. [+]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. Graduates of the doctoral program can pursue clinical and research positions in the public and private sectors. Students who want to become a psychologist must successfully complete Doctoral-level training; pass a national examination, and fulfill all state licensing requirements (e.g., the required number of state-mandated supervised hours). Facilities and Resources Our graduate programs are housed in the new and renovated facilities in Science Hall-East. These facilities include modern clinical, research, and teaching spaces, in addition to a state-of-the-art clinical teaching suite for training, monitoring, recording and conducting clinical sessions, a graduate testing and teaching room and a graduate study and informal learning space for our students. Admission Requirements In addition to the University’s admission requirements: A bachelor's degree and transcript from an accredited college or university Psychology courses require prior to enrollment Developmental Psychology Statistics Research Methods Abnormal Psychology Physiological Psychology or... [-]

Doctoral Degrees Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PSYD)

University of San Francisco - School of Nursing and Health Professions
Campus Full time 5 years September 2017 USA San Francisco

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities. [+]

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities.

Clinical Psychology PsyD from USF SONHP on Vimeo.

Stressing clinical practice, USF's PsyD program prepares doctoral students to work as health service psychologists in a variety of community health settings. Graduates will be proficient in the empirical and theoretical underpinnings of integrated, behavioral health interventions while sensitive to contextual, cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic environments of individuals and communities. Licensure and Accreditation The USF PsyD Program is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) and has Associate Member status in the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP). Graduates of the PsyD program at USF are eligible for licensure in California (and other states) as psychologists. Program Details The USF PsyD program's mission is to offer a rigorous program of study based in Jesuit values that emphasizes clinical and scholarly work with underserved populations and focuses on training culturally responsive health service psychologists to work in interprofessional, integrated behavioral health settings. PROGRAM FEATURES & DELIVERY The program consists of four years of academic study, including three years of practica (1500-2000 hours), a professional project, and a fifth year internship (1500-2000 hours applied toward licensure), typically completed at another institution. The level of complexity and the number of hours of practica increases each year. Each practicum placement takes place in the community and includes a course... [-]

PhD in Psychology specialisms

University of Bolton
Campus Full time 3 - 7 years August 2017 United Kingdom Bolton

The PhD Psychology course is aimed at psychology graduates with a masters degree or equivalent postgraduate experience, who are seeking to develop their knowledge and produce research in a specific area of psychology to a high level of academic achievement. If you are a psychology graduate with less experience you can enrol for the MPhil route – see separate entry. The qualification is awarded subsequent to the production of a thesis and... [+]

Psychology specialisms - PhD The PhD Psychology course is aimed at psychology graduates with a masters degree or equivalent postgraduate experience, who are seeking to develop their knowledge and produce research in a specific area of psychology to a high level of academic achievement. If you are a psychology graduate with less experience you can enrol for the MPhil route – see separate entry. The qualification is awarded subsequent to the production of a thesis and oral examination. Careers & professional development The course is useful if you wish to become a psychology lecturer and researcher in higher education, and if you wish to develop areas of expertise related to your present or intended career outside higher education. On completion of your PhD you will also become a member of the University's alumni association. You can be a lifelong member of the University's community, able to access careers information, as well as the University's library and periodicals, and other facilities. Subject overview Psychology staff in the School of Health and Social Sciences value their relationships with students, and provide friendly and supportive postgraduate research supervision. The PhD course is followed mainly by supervised independent study. You will produce a thesis under the supervision of a member of staff with expertise in the area chosen (the Director of Studies). Additional support is available from a secondary supervisor, and/or an external supervisor at another institution. A programme of related studies that may involve formal taught courses is agreed with the director of... [-]

PhD in Educational Psychology

Palacky University
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Czech Republic Olomouc

Doctoral study in educational psychology is a three-year program and can be studied full-time or in combined form. The program is based on an individual study plan under the guidance of a supervisor or consultant. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Program description: Doctoral study in educational psychology is a three-year program and can be studied full-time or in combined form. The program is based on an individual study plan under the guidance of a supervisor or consultant. This type of study program is intended for graduates of master's degree in psychology and represents the third academic degree. The discipline Educational Psychology assumes the student specialization and leads to self-reliant scientific, creative and research work and prepare for the future path of highly qualified expert. It is conceived as an interdisciplinary branch based on the application of theoretical knowledge in other fields of science and psychological practice. The study is focused on acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills for performing scientific research and the research work in the field of psychology. The study program is realized through seminars, tuition and consultation and focuses both on proven concepts and as well modern theories with regard to the current state of knowledge in the field of education. The theoretical part of the study program offers a wide range of topical lectures and workshops. The own research program is modified on the basis of consultations and is generally formed by the research plan (project), which is a part of the admission procedure. Successful doctoral graduates are awarded with the academic title Ph.D. Graduate´s profile and employability: The graduate of the doctoral program Educational psychology should be a theoretically informed expert that could be able to apply the gained education both in... [-]

PhD in Psychology

Lingnan University
Campus Full time 3 - 4 years September 2017 Hong Kong Tuen Mun

Teaching and research in the Department of Applied Psychology cover many exciting areas, including occupational health psychology, positive psychology, applied social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, cognitive psychology, work-life balance, and human-computer interaction, etc. [+]

PhD in Psychology Duration: 3 or 4 years (Full-time) Place: Hong Kong Teaching and research in the Department of Applied Psychology cover many exciting areas, including occupational health psychology, positive psychology, applied social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, cognitive psychology, and human-computer interaction, etc. Members of staff have internationally recognised expertise in the areas of: Occupational health psychology (occupational stress, work-life balance, psychology of safety, job insecurity) Positive psychology (positive emotion, positive leadership, psychological capital including resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and hope.) Cross-cultural psychology Applied social psychology Interpersonal communication Human error, human-computer interaction Human cognition Sensation and perception Application Methods Applicants may seek admission to the PhD programme in two ways as follows: 1. Apply for PhD Programmes via the Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS) ... [-]

Research degrees (MSc, PhD and NRPhD)

University of Kent, School of Psychology
Campus Full time Part time 1 - 5 years August 2017 United Kingdom Canterbury + 1 more

Kent's School of Psychology supports research in a number of areas, including: social psychology; developmental psychology; forensic psychology; cognitive psychology; existential psychology; personality and motivation. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Research degrees (MSc, PhD and NRPhD) The School offers supervision for full-time or part-time research degrees at MSc and PhD level in any of the following areas. Applicants should send an outline of the research they propose to pursue with their application form. Cognitive psychology/neuropsychology: visual cognition; memory; clinical neuropsychology; language; human-computer interaction. Developmental psychology: cultural ideas regarding development; children's conversational skills; discourse and conversation analysis; recognition memory processes in children; development of prejudice and stereotyping; children's social identity; children with learning disabilities. Forensic psychology: police procedures; legal decision making; eye-witness testimony Group processes and intergroup relations: social identity and self-categorisation; small group performance; group decisions; intergroup relations; stereotyping; prejudice; discrimination; inequality; collective behaviour. Social psychology: group processes; intergroup relations; prejudice; attributional style; attitude change and persuasion; personality and individual differences. We offer the following research degrees: Cognitive Psychology/Neuropsychology PhD Forensic Psychology PhD, NRPhD Psychology MSc, PhD, NRPhD Social Psychology MSc, PhD, NRPh Under the Psychology MSc, PhD and NRPhD programmes we also offer supervision in the area of Developmental Psychology During your research, you are supported by a panel including a main and secondary supervisor. Your supervisors are individually selected for you based on their compatibility with your research interests. Typically, you meet with your supervisors more frequently at the initial stages of research than during the phases of data collection and analysis. You receive training in research-specific and broader ‘transferable’ skills, including academic writing, career management and presentation skills. You also have the opportunity to... [-]

Forensic Psychology - Doctorate (D. Foren. Psy.)

Cardiff Metropolitan University
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 7 years August 2017 United Kingdom Cardiff + 1 more

​The Doctorate in Forensic Psychology is approved by the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC), and is the only British Psychological Society accredited programme in Wales. [+]

​The Doctorate in Forensic Psychology is approved by the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC), and is the only British Psychological Society accredited programme in Wales. Upon completion, provides students with eligibility to apply to the register to practice as Forensic Psychologists in the UK and to gain Chartered Psychologist status with the British Psychological Society (BPS)* The next intake for Top-Up Doctorate only will be September 2014. The next intake for the full Doctorate programme will be September 2015. Course Content​ Flexibility is the essence of our approach to student learning. The Doctorate Programme facilitates students entering and exiting at different places within the Programme depending on the individual needs of the student. Thus, the full Doctorate programme comprises: - MSc in Forensic Psychology - Postgraduate Diploma in Practitioner Forensic Psychology - ‘Top-Up’ doctorate which is the higher level research component. The Top-Up Doctorate will be available to registered practitioners who are seeking to formalise their research and clinical skills in an area of specialism. Applicants completing the Top-Up Doctorate will submit a research thesis reporting a significantly large piece of research. Applicants to the Doctorate Programme may apply for the Full Programme, or for the MSc or PG Diploma, depending on their own individual needs and career progression. Applicants who apply for the MSc may (on successful completion) later apply for the PG Diploma and ‘Top-Up’ Doctorate. Students who progress through the course on individual programmes will, after successful completion of all the component programmes, be awarded the... [-]

Doctor of Psychology (Pys.D.)

Eastern Kentucky University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Richmond

All applicants must submit a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) score. Admission is competitive and limited to available space. Meeting the minimum requirements, therefore, does not guarantee admission. [+]

PhDs in Psychology. Degree Options: Psy.D. Who Would be Interested in This Program? Students interested in doctoral training in Clinical Psychology who wish to practice as clinical psychologists. What Are the Requirements to be Admitted to the Program? A minimum of five undergraduate courses in psychology: general psychology, statistics, and experimental psychology are required, as well as two other courses acceptable to the departmental admissions committee. Applicants are required to submit academic transcripts for any undergraduate and graduate work, as well as complete the GRE. Candidates are encouraged to complete the GRE Psychology Subject Test if Psychology was not their major as an undergraduate. Candidates with a GPA of 3.0 or higher and GRE scores at the 50th percentile or higher will be competitive. All applicants must submit a Graduate Record Examination (GRE) score. Admission is competitive and limited to available space. Meeting the minimum requirements, therefore, does not guarantee admission. Applications should be received by January 15th. [-]

PhD in Pedagogy

Rezekne University of Applied Sciences
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 Latvia Rēzekne

The programme is designed to meet the needs of practitioners who wish to research some aspect of their field of practice. Candidates embark on high-level, practice-based research into one of the of research areas. It is a research degree whose purpose is to assist professionals to develop a relationship between research and their professional activities. [+]

The programme is designed to meet the needs of practitioners who wish to research some aspect of their field of practice. Candidates embark on high-level, practice-based research into one of the of research areas. It is a research degree whose purpose is to assist professionals to develop a relationship between research and their professional activities. Visiting professors from partner universities will be involved as teachers and advisors in the programme. Students have an opportunity to participate in Erasmus mobility for studies and traineeship. The language of instruction is English. Qualification awarded: Doctor’s degree in Pedagogy (PhD). Admission requirements: Master's degree in  Pedagogy,  Psychology,  Educational management or Humanitarian  Sciences, Social Science, Social welfare and social assistance if professional experience in education at least 3 years.   Discussion of the theme or problem in pedagogy, on which research has been made in the submitted paper, is required. Duration of studies: 3 years of full-time studies. Study programme consists of 2 parts: Scientifically research work: the individual research work, to prepare and design of doctor’s dissertation; publication of research results (3 publications); presentation of researches results in the scientifically conferences; the theoretical seminars; the practice of professor assistant or assistant of the lead researcher in making and in conduct of projects of the researches works– 112 CP credits (168 ECTS); Theoretical studies (A part (compulsory) – the module of development of research and intellectual competences; B part (optional) – the module of development academicals competences; C part (free elective)) – 32 CP credits (48... [-]

PhD Program in Cognitive Sciences

National Chung Cheng University
Campus Full time September 2017 Taiwan Chia Yi

The all-English PhD program in Cognitive Sciences (CS) at National Chung Cheng University (CCU) is a new doctoral program, formally established in 2013, created by the joint efforts among faculty members of Center for Research in Cognitive Sciences, [+]

PhDs in Psychology. About the Program The all-English PhD program in Cognitive Sciences (CS) at National Chung Cheng University (CCU) is a new doctoral program, formally established in 2013, created by the joint efforts among faculty members of Center for Research in Cognitive Sciences, Department of Psychology, Graduate Institute of Linguistics, Department of Philosophy, Graduate Institute of Education, Department of Electrical Engineering, and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering. CCU has been playing a leading role in fostering and promoting cognitive sciences for more than a quarter of century in Taiwan, and we are excited to announce the new degree-awarding PhD program, which represents an interdisciplinary integration across many well-developed academic institutes and departments at CCU. Our goal The main objectives of the CS program are to explore the nature of human mind and intelligence, the brain mechanisms underlying mental functions, and the behaviors that derive from the mental faculties. More specifically, the program covers areas encompassing psychology (especially cognitive psychology), linguistics, philosophy (especially philosophy of mind), artificial intelligence, image processing, machine learning, and neuroscience. We not only anticipate to make contributions to the study of mind, brain, and behaviors from our own disciplines, but also to benefit from closely interacting and communicating with colleagues from other disciplines that share the same intellectual interests, both at the level of theory construction and the level of empirical inquiry. To those ends, we have organized the CS program into four core areas in accordance with the expertise of participating faculty members.... [-]