Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology in USA

Find PhD Programs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017

Clinical Psychology

A PhD, also known as a Doctor of Philosophy degree, is a doctorate awarded by a university to the academic who has met all necessary qualifications and can now be considered a doctor in his or her academic field.

Education in the United States is mainly provided by the public sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: state, local, and federal, in that order. The common requirements to study at a higher education level in United States will include your admissions essay (also known as the statement of purpose or personal statement), transcript of records, recommendation/reference letters, language tests

Top Doctoral Programs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017

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PhD in Psychology - Clinical Psychology

Walden University
Online & Campus Combined Full time Part time 72 months September 2017 USA USA Online Minneapolis + 2 more

Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. [+]

Best PhDs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017. Prepare for independent psychological practice with a specialization in Clinical Psychology. Learn to diagnose, assess, and provide interventions for a wide array of emotional and behavioral disorders. Position yourself to work as a practitioner, researcher, or consultant with multidisciplinary teams in hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and group or private practice settings. Assist those who are contending with mental illness and experiencing problems coping with life issues. Work within diverse populations and provide services that are based on empirical evidence, are culturally competent, and are on the cutting edge of clinical psychology. Gain practical, hands-on experience through the Academic Year in Residence (AYR) as well as through supervised practicum and internship requirements. Completion Requirements 159 total quarter credits Core courses (106 cr.) Elective course (15 cr.) Clinical practicum (6 cr.) Dissertation (20 cr.) Internship (12 cr.) Academic Year in Residence Ph.D. residencies (4 four-day sessions) This sequence represents the minimum time to completion. Time to completion may vary by student, depending on individual progress and credits transferred, if applicable. Courses Foundations of Graduate Study in Clinical Psychology Psychopathology From a Clinical Perspective Interventions I Research, Theory, Design, and Methods Social Psychology Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis Tests and Measurement Lifespan Development Biopsychology Qualitative Reasoning and Analysis Ethics and Standards of Psychological Practice Cognitive Assessment Personality Assessment Multicultural Psychology Consultation and Supervision in Psychology Interventions II Writing a Quality Prospectus in Psychology Clinical Psychopharmacology Psychology and Social Change Advanced Quantitative Reasoning and Analysis... [-]

The Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD)

Michigan School of Professional Psychology
Campus Full time 4 - 5 years September 2017 USA Farmington Hills

The Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) is an APA accredited post-master’s professional degree for those pursuing the highest level of practice in clinical psychology. Utilizing the practitioner-scholar model, the doctoral program provides a comprehensive foundation in the scientific bases of psychology to ground clinical training, dissertation research, and scholarship. [+]

The Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) is a post-master’s professional degree for those pursuing the highest level of practice in clinical psychology. Utilizing the practitioner-scholar model, the doctoral program provides a comprehensive foundation in the scientific bases of psychology to ground clinical training, dissertation research, and scholarship. The program fosters an educational environment that values cooperative and collaborative learning and promotes professional development and personal growth. Professional development and personal growth are integral to the degree programs at MiSPP, and many aspects of the educational process are based on experiential learning and self-exploration. Students participate in courses, group process, and other related activities that require self-exploration, dialogue and expression of personal information. In addition, courses, clinical supervision or other program-related activities may require classroom presentations and/or written assignments that involve the communication of personal information. Enrollment in the PsyD program at MiSPP begins in the fall semester only. It is a full-time program that takes a minimum of four years. Admission applications are accepted year-round. The application priority deadline for fall enrollment is February 15th of the same year (after the priority deadline has passed contact the Admissions Coordinator to discuss the availability of seat openings). All required admissions documents must be received by this date. Only applications with all required documents will be reviewed past the deadline. [-]

Doctoral Degrees Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PSYD)

University of San Francisco - School of Nursing and Health Professions
Campus Full time 5 years September 2017 USA San Francisco

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities. [+]

At the University of San Francisco, PsyD students are trained to translate thought into action, through practice-oriented training that emphasizes the mental, emotional, and physical health needs of underserved communities.

Clinical Psychology PsyD from USF SONHP on Vimeo.

Stressing clinical practice, USF's PsyD program prepares doctoral students to work as health service psychologists in a variety of community health settings. Graduates will be proficient in the empirical and theoretical underpinnings of integrated, behavioral health interventions while sensitive to contextual, cultural, spiritual, and socioeconomic environments of individuals and communities. Licensure and Accreditation The USF PsyD Program is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) and has Associate Member status in the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP). Graduates of the PsyD program at USF are eligible for licensure in California (and other states) as psychologists. Program Details The USF PsyD program's mission is to offer a rigorous program of study based in Jesuit values that emphasizes clinical and scholarly work with underserved populations and focuses on training culturally responsive health service psychologists to work in interprofessional, integrated behavioral health settings. PROGRAM FEATURES & DELIVERY The program consists of four years of academic study, including three years of practica (1500-2000 hours), a professional project, and a fifth year internship (1500-2000 hours applied toward licensure), typically completed at another institution. The level of complexity and the number of hours of practica increases each year. Each practicum placement takes place in the community and includes a course... [-]

PhD in East-West Psychology

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time Part time 2 years September 2017 USA San Francisco + 1 more

The program of study consists of a foundational course, research methods courses, research colloquia, advanced seminars, a student-designed area of specialization, two comprehensive exams, and a dissertation. Students focus on a specific area of study and develop methodological skills. [+]

Students complete 36 units of coursework and write a dissertation. The program of study consists of a foundational course, research methods courses, research colloquia, advanced seminars, a student-designed area of specialization, two comprehensive exams, and a dissertation. Students focus on a specific area of study and develop methodological skills. They work closely with their advisors to design an individualized curriculum and participate in research colloquia to articulate their dissertation research project. Ph.D. Program Learning Goals and Objectives Upon completion of the Ph.D. in East-West Psychology, and in addition to M.A. goals and objectives, graduates will be able to: Goal 1. Produce original scholarly works in the field of East-West psychology and spirituality. Objective 1. Demonstrate comprehensive knowledge and expertise in a selected area of specialization within East-West studies. Objective 2. Produce work that creatively and critically interprets, compares, integrates, applies, and/or evaluates knowledge from a variety of Eastern, Western, and indigenous psychological and spiritual traditions. Objective 3. Apply critical thinking in relation to basic and complex issues of East-West cross-cultural hermeneutics, such as orientalism, ethnocentrism, critical pluralism, insider/outsider perspectives, relativism, and/or incommensurability. Goal 2. Carry out scholarly research with a methodology appropriate to their research interests. Objective 1. Design cogent, feasible, and methodologically rigorous research projects. Objective 2. Apply several qualitative and theoretical research methods (e.g., phenomenological, hermeneutic, heuristic, narrative, comparative) to their research interests. Objective 3. Carry out a complete research project that demonstrates professional methodological knowledge and skills. Goal 3. Be competent in a variety of pedagogical, writing,... [-]

PhD in Integral and Transpersonal Psychology

California Institute of Integral Studies
Online & Campus Combined Full time September 2017 USA San Francisco

Transpersonal psychology is a transformative psychology of the whole person in intimate relationship with a diverse, interconnected, and evolving world. [+]

Best PhDs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017. PhD in Integral and Transpersonal Psychology Transpersonal psychology is a transformative psychology of the whole person in intimate relationship with a diverse, interconnected, and evolving world. It pays particular attention to states of consciousness associated with spiritual, mystical, and other exceptional human experiences that seem to promote healing, transformation, and connection to the larger world. As a psychology situated in community and world, transpersonal affirms the value of social action and ecological stewardship. Because our relationships are global, a transpersonal approach challenges the false norms of a psychology that is situated in any one meaning frame. Transpersonal’s initial mission to include more than one valid state of consciousness can now be extended to embrace many ways of being human as reflected in culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, spiritual path, and ways of knowing. The integral vision of a whole-person psychology can blossom into a psychology of humanity that celebrates our differences as much as it honors what we hold in common. The notion that spirituality is an aspect if the human being apart from any specific religion is an idea that comes directly from transpersonal psychology, and it was the first field to examine the practices of Eastern spirituality, such as mindfulness, from a psychological perspective. Transpersonal was also the first psychology to study psychedelics, a field that is now coming back to the attention of mainstream researchers. As an outgrowth of humanistic psychology, it is part of the movement that... [-]

Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program at CIIS

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 4 years September 2017 USA San Francisco + 1 more

The PsyD Program at CIIS is unique. Located in the heart of San Francisco, ours was the first accredited university in North America to offer programs that connect the insights of Western psychology with Eastern spirituality. [+]

The Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program at CIIS The PsyD Program at CIIS is unique. Located in the heart of San Francisco, ours was the first accredited university in North America to offer programs that connect the insights of Western psychology with Eastern spirituality. We continue today to present a dynamic clinical psychology curriculum that combines the latest scientific research with the world's great wisdom traditions. We believe that such a synthesis permits deep understanding of the human condition, as well as insight into the most effective ways of helping those in need. The PsyD Program is carefully designed to prepare students for practice-focused careers in clinical psychology. As a member of the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP), our practitioner-scholar training model provides broad and general education in clinical psychology that, in addition, integrates depth-psychological, societal, ecological, and spiritual dimensions of human experience into the curriculum. Full time students who enter the program with Regular Standing (those who enter with a BA) typically take three to four years to complete coursework. This is followed by the internship, which takes one year if it is a full-time internship (about forty hours a week), two years if it is a part-time internship (about twenty hours a week). The dissertation also follows coursework and, while it is possible to complete the dissertation in one year, students typically take two years to complete and write up their research. Realistically, a full time student admitted with Regular standing can expect to... [-]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD)

William Paterson University of New Jersey
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Wayne

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. [+]

Best PhDs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017. Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (PsyD) The doctoral (PsyD) program in clinical psychology is a 96-credit program based on the Practitioner–Scholar Model. The PsyD degree includes both training and course work in clinical practice and research based on the premise that clinical practice and research can help inform and strengthen each other. Because the PsyD is a more practice-oriented degree, we place an emphasis on the development of the knowledge, skills, and competencies that psychologists use in clinical practice. Our doctoral program is built on a foundation of over a decade of graduating Master’s-level students, many of whom are now active clinicians, teachers, supervisors and doctoral students. Graduates of the doctoral program can pursue clinical and research positions in the public and private sectors. Students who want to become a psychologist must successfully complete Doctoral-level training; pass a national examination, and fulfill all state licensing requirements (e.g., the required number of state-mandated supervised hours). Facilities and Resources Our graduate programs are housed in the new and renovated facilities in Science Hall-East. These facilities include modern clinical, research, and teaching spaces, in addition to a state-of-the-art clinical teaching suite for training, monitoring, recording and conducting clinical sessions, a graduate testing and teaching room and a graduate study and informal learning space for our students. Admission Requirements In addition to the University’s admission requirements: A bachelor's degree and transcript from an accredited college or university Psychology courses require prior to enrollment Developmental Psychology... [-]

Doctoral Program in Counseling Psychology

University of Central Arkansas
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Conway

The doctoral program in Counseling Psychology at the University of Central Arkansas provides graduate education in the scientific practice of psychology and in counseling psychology as a professional specialization. The program of study is grounded in the scientist‑practitioner model for training psychologists that stresses training in both research methods and professional practice. This model affirms the idea that practice and research should reciprocally influence and strengthen one another and are thus complementary components of graduate psychology education. The role of scientist-practitioner is to be (1) a consumer and practitioner of evidence-based clinical practices, (2) an evaluator of professional actions and, (3) a researcher who produces new data and who reports these findings to the professional community. The scientist-practitioner model was developed at the Boulder Conference on clinical psychology in 1949 and subsequently accepted in 1954 by the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of the American Psychological Association (APA). [+]

Mission Statement The mission of the doctoral program in Counseling Psychology is to prepare counseling psychologists who are trained in evidence-based psychological services and research methods, are sensitive to individual, social, and cultural differences, are advocates for mental-health and personal growth throughout the lifespan, and are competent to practice in healthcare systems and in academia. Scientist-Practitioner Model of Training The doctoral program in Counseling Psychology at the University of Central Arkansas provides graduate education in the scientific practice of psychology and in counseling psychology as a professional specialization. The program of study is grounded in the scientist‑practitioner model for training psychologists that stresses training in both research methods and professional practice. This model affirms the idea that practice and research should reciprocally influence and strengthen one another and are thus complementary components of graduate psychology education. The role of scientist-practitioner is to be (1) a consumer and practitioner of evidence-based clinical practices, (2) an evaluator of professional actions and, (3) a researcher who produces new data and who reports these findings to the professional community. The scientist-practitioner model was developed at the Boulder Conference on clinical psychology in 1949 and subsequently accepted in 1954 by the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of the American Psychological Association (APA). Need for Psychologists The need for quality counseling psychological services has been strongly felt throughout the state of Arkansas, the United States, and beyond. The doctoral emphasis in counseling psychology responds to this need in a pragmatic manner by preparing graduates to... [-]

Accelerated Doctor of Psychoanalysis (Psya.D.) Degree

Boston Graduate School Of Psychoanalysis
Campus Part time 2 years September 2017 USA Boston Brookline Livingston New York + 3 more

The accelerated Doctor of Psychoanalysis (Psya.D.) degree provides the opportunity for already certified psychoanalysts to earn a doctoral degree in psychoanalysis. Doctoral candidates study comparative approaches to clinical intervention and contemporary issues in psychoanalysis (such as recent developments in brain science) while conducting original doctoral research... [+]

Best PhDs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017. Accelerated Doctor of Psychoanalysis (Psya.D.) Degree The accelerated Doctor of Psychoanalysis (Psya.D.) degree provides the opportunity for already certified psychoanalysts to earn a doctoral degree in psychoanalysis. Doctoral candidates study comparative approaches to clinical intervention and contemporary issues in psychoanalysis (such as recent developments in brain science) while conducting original doctoral research. To be eligible for admission, candidates will have earned a post-master's certificate in psychoanalysis. It is expected that applicants will have already earned the equivalent of at least 36 credits of post-master's psychoanalytic coursework, including psychopathology, psychoanalytic theory, developmental theory, dreams and symbolic processes, intervention, transference, countertransference, and resistance, as well as case seminars. Suitable applicants will also have significant psychoanalytic experience, will have received extensive psychoanalytic clinical supervision, and will have undergone a training analysis. Applicants submit a qualifying paper that provides evidence of the critical thinking, writing skills, and psychoanalytic understanding required to conduct doctoral research in psychoanalysis. The accelerated Psya.D. program can be completed over a two year period, one day per week, every other week, at the Boston campus (2-3 courses per semester), in addition to the completion of the dissertation. The program requires 37 credits, including 10 credits of research methods course work, 6 credits of case seminar, 11 credits of additional coursework in psychoanalysis, and 10 credits of directed research supervision as the student works on the dissertation. Degree requirements Completion of 37 credits of required and elective course work. Successful completion of the... [-]

Doctor of Psychoanalysis Degree (Clinical Psychoanalysis)

Boston Graduate School Of Psychoanalysis
Campus Full time Part time 6 - 8 years September 2017 USA Boston Brookline Livingston New York + 4 more

BGSP is unique among both psychoanalytic training institutes and graduate schools in offering regionally accredited degrees in psychoanalysis, culminating in the Doctor of Psychoanalysis degree (Psya.D.). This program combines full training to become a psychoanalyst with academic and research studies leading to the doctorate. Psychoanalysts who have already been certified but would like to pursue the doctorate may... [+]

Doctor of Psychoanalysis Degree (Clinical Psychoanalysis) BGSP is unique among both psychoanalytic training institutes and graduate schools in offering regionally accredited degrees in psychoanalysis, culminating in the Doctor of Psychoanalysis degree (Psya.D.). This program combines full training to become a psychoanalyst with academic and research studies leading to the doctorate. Psychoanalysts who have already been certified but would like to pursue the doctorate may apply for the Accelerated Psya.D. Program. The Psya.D. program takes the psychoanalyst-in-training beyond the process of understanding how people develop their emotional and mental lives, into the realm of entering and intervening in the unconscious life of clients. The student explores the full range of character structures and psychopathology, integrating academic study with casework to understand patients’ repetitions, defenses, resistances, and symbolic communications. In clinical supervision, students learn to use the transference and countertransference responses to work constructively as analysts. Psychoanalytic research studies foster the student’s discipline to examine clinical data systematically, strengthening the process of making valid inferences from observations. Such work requires an investment not only of time and resources, but also of oneself. The journey for the analyst-in-training entails both the courage and commitment to develop a high level of emotional attunement, attainable only through the combination of seminars, self-examination in the training analysis, and intensive clinical supervision (all hallmarks of BGSP’s integrative approach to learning). Student Outcomes Graduates of the Psya.D. program are prepared to practice as psychoanalysts with a wide range of clients, as well as to teach, conduct psychoanalytic research,... [-]

Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D) in Clinical Psychology

Sofia University
Campus September 2017 USA Palo Alto

The Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) in Clinical Psychology degree program at Sofia University provides formal training in the science and practice of clinical psychology. [+]

Best PhDs in Clinical Psychology in USA 2017. On-Campus Program The Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) in Clinical Psychology degree program at Sofia University provides formal training in the science and practice of clinical psychology. In addition to a broad and rigorous preparation in clinical psychology, the program provides training in theory and treatment inspired by positive psychology and both secular and spiritual concepts and interventions. Mindfulness as a source of both clinician self-care and treatment interventions is a core component of the curriculum. After degree completion, you will be prepared for a career as a licensed clinical psychologist, which may include supervisory and program development positions in healthcare settings, substance abuse and mental health treatment settings, corrections agencies, private practice, teaching, and/or research. The Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology program includes the following: ( Note that items 1, 3,4 and 6 display our integration of traditional clinical psychology training with spiritual and positive psychology). An accomplished faculty actively involved in clinical research and practice, with an emphasis on spiritual and positive psychology applications A cohort-based community of learners Broad and general training in clinical psychology with a unique emphasis on mindfulness and positive psychology Training in emotional regulation to improve clinical performance that includes meditation Two years of clinical practicum and one year (1,500 hours) of supervised internship experience Research and dissertation focused on a clinical psychology topic relevant to the student’s interests and related to the domains of mindfulness, spirituality or positive psychology Program Prerequisites: A Bachelor’s degree... [-]

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Transpersonal Psychology

Sofia University
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Palo Alto

Our program combines experiential learning with serious academic inquiry and our graduates become transpersonal scholars, transpersonally-oriented therapists and healers, transformative educators, and change agents in various social and organizational contexts. [+]

If you are a self-motivated learner who grapples with the challenges of our time and seeks to make positive change in the world, this program is for you. Our program combines experiential learning with serious academic inquiry and our graduates become transpersonal scholars, transpersonally-oriented therapists and healers, transformative educators, and change agents in various social and organizational contexts. Coursework includes intensive inquiry in transpersonal philosophy, theory and research; a research methods sequence that prepares students for dissertation work on a chosen topic; and integrative and transformational educational experiences of community-building and applied learning through retreats and a community praxis sequence. This on-campus program provides the container for you to be a part of a diverse learning community. Our program offers five concentrations: Consciousness and Creativity Studies Behavioral Science Ecopsychology Somatic Psychology Research Methods in Psychology Members of our faculty publish in diverse areas of inquiry including exceptional human experiences, consciousness studies, creativity, comparative religions, and the interface of cultural studies and transpersonal psychology. Our distinctive balance of scholarly study, experiential learning, and professional development supports the work of bringing transformational concepts and practices into the world in a manner that promotes personal growth, social change, and healing in a variety of settings. What does this prepare you for? Students who complete their doctorate in transpersonal psychology go on to various professional endeavors. Those with prior professional lives often incorporate transpersonal principles into an existing practice. Along with a chosen specialization, many graduates develop a new calling after completion of the... [-]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

Adler School of Professional Psychology
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Chicago

In the Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (Psy.D.) program, you’ll prepare for the general practice of clinical psychology with an emphasis on socially responsible practice. The program follows [+]

Doctor of Psychology in Clinical PsychologyIn the Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology (Psy.D.) program, you’ll prepare for the general practice of clinical psychology with an emphasis on socially responsible practice. The program follows the scholar-practitioner model of training and education developed by the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology. The model seeks to develop knowledge, skills, and values in seven core competency areas:

    1.    Relationship

    2.    Assessment

    3.    Intervention

    4.    Research and evaluation

    5.    Consultation and education

    6.    Management and supervision... [-]


Ph.D in Clinical Psychology (Rosemead School of Psychology)

Biola University
Campus Full time Part time 4 years September 2017 USA Los Angeles + 1 more

Normally, four years of residency are required unless transfer of credit is brought in and advanced standing granted. While the doctorate is not awarded simply or completion of stated course work, there are basic unit requirements for the degree (133 semester hours). [+]

Ph.D in Clinical Psychology (Rosemead School of Psychology)

Normally, four years of residency are required unless transfer of credit is brought in and advanced standing granted.  While the doctorate is not awarded simply or completion of stated course work, there are basic unit requirements for the degree (133 semester hours).  Each student has a faculty advisor who assists in the planning of each semester's schedule of courses and supervises the student's progress in the program. 

Psychology: Psy.D. students must complete a minimum of 76 semester hours of psychology.  These 76 units must include 46 required psychology units, 18 units of practicum and 12 units of elective psychology courses.  Students may apply up to 6 units of graduate coursework from the School of Intercultural Studies toward the total psychology hours requirement.... [-]


Psy.D.in Combined and Integrated School and Clinical Psychology

Kean University
Campus Full time 5 years September 2017 USA New York Union + 1 more

Psy.D. Program in Combined and Integrated School and Clinical Psychology places equal emphasis on both research and clinical training. The hybrid design of the program enables students to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to practice in a variety of applied settings. [+]

Kean University’s Psy.D. in Combined and Integrated School and Clinical Psychology program places equal emphasis on both research and clinical training. The combined and integrated nature of the program enables students to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to practice in a variety of applied settings emphasizing inter-professional collaboration. In addition to extensive clinical training, students are given the opportunity to engage in research throughout all years of the program, thus advancing the profession through scientific and scholarly contributions. They are also expected to acquire basic and advanced competencies in School Psychology and Clinical Psychology, culminating in eligibility for appropriate certification and licensure.... [-]