Doctorate Degrees in USA

View 142 Top PhDs in USA 2017

PhD

The USA is a popular location for students from all over the world to pursue postgraduate education. The USA hosts many prestigious universities that offer top-quality education that can lead candidates pursuing a PhD in USA into successful careers, whether in academia, research institutes, government, or other private or public agencies.

There is a wide range of PhD in USA programs across the nation. Every state has something unique to offer, as well as top-notch educational institutions. Candidates can consider the exciting and cutting-edge states of New York or California, or may prefer states with amazing natural scenery and beauty such as Vermont or Colorado. Wherever the program is located, candidates pursuing a PhD in USA will conduct significant research in partnership with qualified faculty, resulting in a dissertation that provides a significant contribution to the current knowledge base. Some candidates will also participate in coursework, teaching, and seminars as part of the PhD in USA programs. Common USA PhD programs include political science, biological sciences, anthropology, sociology, psychology, engineering, and education.

If you are interested in earning your USA PhD, then scroll through the options below and find the university that is waiting for you!

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PhD, Leadership: Higher Education

Concordia University Chicago
Campus Full time 4 years October 2017 USA Chicago

The specialization in higher education leadership is designed for higher education professionals who have the goal of becoming an established expert in higher education leadership, administration and education. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. PhD, Leadership: Higher Education The specialization in higher education leadership is designed for higher education professionals who have the goal of becoming an established expert in higher education leadership, administration and education. Courses in the program focus on the policies, practices and issues facing both public and private post-secondary institutions. Students gain research skills that stem from evidence-based decision making, while simultaneously gaining an understanding of the complexities of higher education institutions. The program focuses on higher education systems in the U.S., but also analyzes the globalization of higher education. The specialization in higher education is designed to enable students to: Understand the complexities of higher education and its organizational and business principles and practices. Apply and analyze learning solutions that support and drive higher education and student retention and success. Strategically support the various stakeholders with informed and judicious decisions. Identify and integrate leadership orientations that align with the institutional mission and vision statement. Exercise professional ethical behavior that supports the institutional mission and allocation of resources to support and achieve institutional objectives. Course Requirements Academic Entry Requirements: Bachelor’s degree and master’s degree from a U.S. equivalent, regionally accredited institution Current Graduate Record Exam (GRE) or Miller Analogies Test scores (test taken within the prior three years) English Language Proficiency: IELTS: minimum 6.0 or TOEFL: minimum 60 (internet-based) or Michigan Test: minimum 85 Official test scores should be provided. International students who have earned an advanced degree from an accredited institution in the United States, or students from an international English-speaking university (in which the language of instruction is English) need not submit English language scores. Other Documents: Completed and signed application Objective statement Writing sample: Submit a paper from your master’s program that demonstrates your ability to write in a scholarly manner at a level typical of graduate work. This sample should approach, but not exceed, five pages in length Professional resume showing past experience: at least two years of successful teaching/ administrative experience Copy of official transcript Copy of passport Foreign transcript evaluation* Two letters of recommendation Proof of English language proficiency Declaration of finances/bank statement/financial guarantee [-]

PhD in Social Work

Walden University
Campus or Online Full time Part time September 2017 USA USA Online

Walden’s PhD in Social Work program can prepare you for the next step in your social work career as a researcher, college-level educator, or administrative leader. [+]

Walden’s PhD in Social Work program can prepare you for the next step in your social work career as a researcher, college-level educator, or administrative leader. A challenging curriculum enables you to analyze advanced theory and explore some of the most pressing and cutting-edge issues in social work today. Face-to-face academic residencies support the learning experience, allowing you to collaborate with professors and colleagues, build your social and professional community, and enhance your ability to effect positive social change. You will also gain skills in scholarly writing that can help you advance your role as a leader. Achieve the highest credentials in your profession with this PhD program in social work. Specializations Addictions and Social Work Clinical Expertise Criminal Justice Disaster, Crisis, and Intervention Family Studies and Interventions Medical Social Work Policy Practice Social Work Administration [-]

Self-Paced PhD in International Business Management

ISM - International School of Management
Campus Full time Part time 4 years September 2017 USA New York + 1 more

The ISM PhD in International Business Management prepares experienced and highly motivated business professionals to embark on careers of engaged instruction and original research in academia [+]

Self-Paced PhD in International Business Management

The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) program is designed for two types of candidates: experienced business executives who would like “to give something back” and assist in the development of future business leaders by becoming effective educators; and innovative teachers and/or researchers determined to make an impact by contributing to the body knowledge in their chosen disciplines. PhD candidates learn to make a difference through writing, speaking, teaching, researching, consulting, and undertaking entrepreneurial ventures.

The program emphasizes an understanding of management as it is practiced and interpreted across organizations, sectors, and cultures. Each candidate develops the research and teaching skills to generate and encourage new perspectives on management practice. It is designed to emphasize curricular leadership and to focus on applied and theoretical research that improves instruction and educational outcomes.... [-]


PhD in Microsystems Engineering

Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT)
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 USA Rochester

This multidisciplinary program builds on the fundamentals of traditional engineering and science combined with curriculum and research activities addressing the numerous technical challenges of micro- and nano-systems. [+]

Ph. D. in Microsystems Engineering

 

RIT offers a unique program leading to a doctorate degree in microsystems engineering. This multidisciplinary program builds on the fundamentals of traditional engineering and science combined with curriculum and research activities addressing the numerous technical challenges of micro- and nano-systems. These include the manipulation of electrical, photonic, optical, mechanical, chemical, and biological functionality to process, sense, and interface with the world at a nanometer scale. The goal of the program is to provide a foundation to explore future technology through research in nano-engineering, design methods, and technologies and their integration into micro- and nano-scaled systems. Some of the program’s areas of exploration include the following:... [-]


Doctor of Management

Case Western Reserve University, Weatherhead School of Management
Campus Full time 3 years September 2017 USA Cleveland

Business leadership is increasingly required to integrate multiple sources of knowledge, understand the perceptions of diverse parties and put human values into action. Executives are challenged to create social, intellectual and economic value for their organizations and for society at large based on rigorous and sound evidence. Recognizing these challenges, the Weatherhead School of Management offers... [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. Doctor of Management Business leadership is increasingly required to integrate multiple sources of knowledge, understand the perceptions of diverse parties and put human values into action. Executives are challenged to create social, intellectual and economic value for their organizations and for society at large based on rigorous and sound evidence. Recognizing these challenges, the Weatherhead School of Management offers two doctorate degrees in management for working professionals: the Doctor of Management (DM) and the Designing Sustainable Systems track in the PhD in management. The DM is a three-year lockstep program with an option to pursue the Designing Sustainable Systems track in the PhD in management. DM students’ research projects are evaluated by a faculty review committee over the course of the program at critical research milestones. Year One Identify problem of practice Understand & synthesize relevant literature Complete conceptual paper Initiate qualitative research project Year Two Complete qualitative research paper Develop theoretical model Initiate quantitative research project Year Three Complete quantitative research paper Complete dissertation composed of qualitative and quantitative research projects Integrate research projects into dissertation Additional Year (PhD in Management, Sustainable Systems) Directed independent research Attend Research Workshops Comprehensive exam Proposal Defense Dissertation Defense Is This Program Right for Me? The purpose of the DM program is to develop thought leaders for the advancement of business and society. A Weatherhead DM student combines a disciplined approach to scholarship with a focus on compelling problems of practice. Candidates conduct several rigorous studies during the program that introduce them to the theories, practices and techniques of evidence-based management. The DM experience is intended to equip graduates with the requisite skills to apply evidence-based management in their organizations, to apply research to practice, to engage and prepare for self-directed lifelong learning in management research, to continue research dissemination, and to cultivate a broad profile for scholarly teaching. DM students also may apply to the Designing Sustainable Systems track in the PhD in management program, thereby extending their coursework an additional year. This fourth year is dedicated to independent doctoral studies and research workshops that permit students to meet the requirements of a PhD in management offered by the School of Graduate Studies. During both the DM and PhD programs students are required to prepare and submit their research papers to appropriate high-quality academic conferences for review and presentation. A core goal for both programs is for students to make original intellectual contributions while enrolled in the programs. Ask yourself the following questions: Am I intellectually curious? Do I enjoy reading and expressing my own ideas in writing? Do I get satisfaction from working with concepts and seeing patterns and relationships between ideas? Do I believe that important organizational and social issues can be addressed through the development of knowledge? Am I receptive to learning through systematic inquiry, both qualitative and quantitative? Do I have the motivation to conduct solid research and contribute to applied knowledge? Can I contribute to a diverse community seeking to build concepts about how the world works? Do I have the drive and time to complete a rigorous, three-year doctoral degree? Benefit to Participants Our DM offers experienced executives unparalleled benefits: An understanding of managing organizations in the context of broad issues, such as culture and politics, technology and social system design and institutional approaches to problem solving A transdisciplinary, integrative, global perspective on critical organizational and social issues A unique approach to intellectual inquiry emphasizing the integration of theory and practice The opportunity to define and conduct issue-oriented research allowing participants to customize their studies and to contribute to applied management knowledge Intellectual development and personal growth as an individual, as an executive and as a contributor to the scholarly community and to society A prestigious doctoral degree in management achieved through a rigorous, structured and comprehensive educational experience for the working professional Value to Organizations To compete effectively in today’s complex world, organizations require leaders who: Engage in thinking and analysis based upon a global perspective and understanding of viewpoints held by diverse constituencies Possess heightened issue identification and resolution skills to be applied in business management practice Understand interdependencies between organizations and the societies in which they function Maintain an active network of peers within and outside of an organization Commit to the principles of lifelong learning and personal development in order to enhance their value to an organization Weatherhead’s unique practitioner-scholar orientation will allow you to: Conduct studies and projects on issues, problems and opportunities of significance to your organization Test, evaluate and develop a more sophisticated understanding and assumptions about global trends that will affect your organization and community Gain perspective on the worldwide challenges and opportunities that will impact the plans, strategies and policies guiding your organization in the long term [-]

PhD in Management

University at Buffalo School of Management
Campus Full time 2 - 4 years August 2017 USA Buffalo

Built on a foundation of excellence, the University at Buffalo Management PhD program will provide the training, education and skills you need to launch a successful academic career. Choose from six majors: accounting, finance, management science and systems, marketing, operations management and strategy, or organization and human resources. [+]

Built on a foundation of excellence, the University at Buffalo Management PhD program will provide the training, education and skills you need to launch a successful academic career. Choose from six majors: accounting, finance, management science and systems, marketing, operations management and strategy, or organization and human resources. Don’t just take our word for it. Here’s what real UB PhDs have to say. Picture yourself here. You fit. Visit us at www.mgt.buffalo.edu/phd to apply or learn more about the UB PhD in Management. Applications for the UB PhD in Management are now open. Deadline: Please see our website for all application deadlines and information [-]

MIT Zaragoza PhD Program in Logistics and Supply Chain Management

Zaragoza Logistics Center
Campus Full time 4 years

The main aim of the PhD Program on Logistics and Supply Chain Management is to develop outstanding scholars who will pursue distinguished careers in research and education. Students work intensively with our faculty to create new knowledge in fields of interest such as supply chain coordination, inventory management, supply chain finance, supply chain risk management and security, and supply chain innovation. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. MIT Zaragoza PhD Program in Logistics and Supply Chain Management The main aim of the PhD Program on Logistics and Supply Chain Management is to develop outstanding scholars who will pursue distinguished careers in research and education. Students work intensively with our faculty to create new knowledge in fields of interest such as supply chain coordination, inventory management, supply chain finance, supply chain risk management and security, and supply chain innovation. First and second year PhD students typically complete PhD level courses offered by the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, such as probability and stochastic processes, empirical methods, integer and dynamic programming, inventory management and game theory. Second year PhD students spend a semester at MIT and have the opportunity of studying at other leading business and engineering schools. The dissertation typically requires two more years to complete. At the end of second year, students must pass a comprehensive qualifying exam, when the student becomes a candidate for the PhD and focuses on dissertation research. The program provides students with the following: Financial Aid Multicultural academic and research experience in both the EU and the US MIT SCALE Network: Multi-continent experience A unique focused PhD program on SCM Teaching assistantships in our Masters Faculty network with strong credentials Official PhD degree awarded by the University of Zaragoza Certificate from MIT Full time dedication This full-time program follows the highest international quality standards for doctoral studies, from the rigorous admissions process, continuous high-performance control process, to the comprehensive exam and thesis defense, enabling graduates to take faculty positions at leading universities around the world or to become innovation leaders for international companies. FIRST YEAR COURSEWORK (subject to change) Quarter 1 Introduction to Math Mathematical Programming Financial Systems and SCM Statistics and Probability Models. Quarter 2 Empirical Methods Econometrics Inventory Management. Elective ZLOG Quarter 3 PhD Summer Academy SECOND YEAR COURSEWORK Courses will depend on the research field of interest of the students. THE ADMISSION PROCESS FOR ACADEMIC YEAR 2017-2018 IS NOW OPENFINANCIAL AID All admitted PhD students are eligible for financial aid, in terms of fellowship to cover tuition and stipend for living expenses or funding from companies or organizations that sponsor research at ZLC or full scholarship. The program also encourages admitted PhD students to search for other external financial support. ASSISTANTSHIPS Assistantships are offered to cover tuition and a stipend for living expenses: RA (Research Assistant): It may be offered when available by funded research projects, from 1st year. TA (Teaching Assistant): 3rd year and after depending on teaching capabilities. Candidates can also obtain grants from their countries, EU, research institutions, private companies, etc. “PHD IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT” program is supported by the European Social Fund, participating in the Operational Programme 2014-2020. FEES International ZLC Tuition 1st year: 10,000 € 2nd year: 10,000 €* 3rd year: 6,500 € 4rd year: 6,500 € Total: 33,000 € (4 years) *Students who successfully pass the Qualifying exam after the 2nd year, will obtain a Certificate in Research in Logistics and SCM, from ZLC and MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program. [-]

PhD in Management

Maharishi University Of Management
Campus Part time September 2017 USA Fairfield

The PhD program at MUM is a community of inquiry for continued exploration of questions suggested by this thesis [+]

In July 2013 and July 2012, the MUM business faculty hosted conferences on Deep Green Sustainability with distinguished speakers from around the world. These conferences were convened to explore the thesis: “There must be a transformation of consciousness in order to truly ’embed’ sustainability in our companies and our society.” The PhD program at MUM is a community of inquiry for continued exploration of questions suggested by this thesis, including: What is consciousness? How can we study the transformation of consciousness on the individual and collective level? What are the indicators of embedded sustainability? What are the mechanics of embedding sustainability? How can research be designed to explore the connections between consciousness and sustainability? We welcome you to join us in this cutting edge exploration of the potential to transform organizations and societies through profound consciousness-based approaches to sustainability. — Dr. Dennis Heaton, Director PhD in Management Study Sustainable Management The PhD program in Management at MUM explores how organizations create sustainable value that fulfills the interests of the organization through producing positive impacts for society and the environment. Our investigations of sustainable management encompass three components: Developing holistic consciousness in the manager Managing the transformation of organizations toward sustainable practices The measurement and communication of sustainability outcomes. Each of these components is covered in the coursework and they represent the scope of our programmatic research on consciousness-based sustainability in management. The evolution of individual and collective consciousness cultivates the learning capabilities of systems thinking, collaborative relationships, and creative visioning to create sustainable value. This evolving consciousness expresses itself in new management practices and forms of organization that enable organizations to innovatively address social and environmental needs. Evolving consciousness also attends to and reports on a holistic range of performance outcomes, encompassing economic, social, and environmental results. In the PhD program at Maharishi University of Management, sustainable management is studied in the light of the Science and Technology of Consciousness. This program in Consciousness-Based℠ Management for Sustainability provides understanding and experience of the total intelligence of Nature, which automatically manages the infinitely complex and evolving universe without strain and without mistakes. Students in this program practice technologies for personal growth toward better health, clearer thinking, greater creativity, moral development, and wisdom. [-]

PhD in Applied Linguistics

Northern Arizona University
Campus Full time August 2017 USA Flagstaff

The Ph.D. program in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University is designed to prepare future professors, researchers and teacher trainers to work independently and in leadership positions with the learning and teaching of second languages, the analysis of language, and the design of language-related research. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. Pursue a diverse range of issues in preparation for your career as a researcher, teacher trainer, or leader in fields related to teaching and learning second languages, including: Corpus linguistics Grammar and vocabulary Grammatical variation Language planning and policy Language testing and program evaluation Pragmatics Quantitative research methods Register and discourse analysis Second language acquisition Second language reading and writing Second language teaching and learning Speech perception and production Spoken discourse World Englishes Our faculty work closely with individual students, helping them to develop as colleagues in applied linguistics. As a result, our PhD students have an outstanding record of publication and participation in major conferences such as TESOL and AAAL. Graduates of our program have also been highly successful at obtaining tenure-track faculty positions at major universities. What Can I Do with a Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Linguistics? The Ph.D. program in Applied Linguistics at Northern Arizona University is designed to prepare future professors, researchers and teacher trainers to work independently and in leadership positions with the learning and teaching of second languages, the analysis of language, and the design of language-related research. University Requirements To receive a Doctor of Philosophy Degree (Ph.D.) at Northern Arizona University, you must complete a planned group of courses, from one or more disciplines, ranging from at least 60-109 units of graduate-level courses. Most plans require research, a dissertation, and comprehensive exams. All plans have residency requirements regarding time spent on the Flagstaff campus engaged in full-time study. ADDITIONAL ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS Admission requirements over and above admission to NAU are required. NAU Graduate Online application is required for all programs. Details on admission requirements are included in the online application. Undergraduate degree from a regionally accredited institution Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.00 (scale is 4.00 = "A"), or the equivalent. Admission to many graduate programs is on a competitive basis, and programs may have higher standards than those established by the Graduate College. Transcripts For details on graduate admission policies, please visit the Graduate Admissions Policy International applicants have additional admission requirements. Individual program admission requirements include: GRE® revised General Test 3 letters of recommendation Writing sample Personal statement or essay Resume or Curriculum Vitae Official TOEFL iBT/IELTS scores taken within the last 2 years are required for international applicants. Student Learning Outcomes Upon completion of the Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics, students will have: Advanced critical and analytical knowledge of the structure and uses of the English language, English language discourse processes and genres, the development of second language learning processes in their diverse cultural contexts, and the assessment of both language program effectiveness and individual language proficiency Ability to address issues of language learning in real world settings Ability to address both language program effectiveness and individual language proficiency Ability to contribute to innovative and effective English language teaching practices in the State of Arizona and elsewhere Ability to integrate use of technology into language instruction and research Ability to synthesize information and approaches across a range of core topics in Applied Linguistics, such as language acquisition, language in society, English grammar, and the development of language curricula and programs Understanding of the many issues relevant to cross-cultural communication Comprehensive preparation and professional orientation for advanced research in Ph.D. programs Ability to design, conduct, analyze, and interpret original and important empirical research Ability to contribute as active professionals in Applied Linguistics and related fields Expertise and qualifications to contribute significantly in professorial positions to the growth and development of Applied Linguistics [-]

PhD in Engineering Management

Western New England University
Campus or Online Full time Part time 3 - 6 years February 2017 USA Springfield + 1 more

In this full- or part-time program, you will learn the technical depth and gain the breadth of knowledge to become a successful researcher, practitioner, or educator in the management of engineering and technology. You will develop the skills needed to conduct rigorous research in areas related to the improvement, design, and management of projects and programs within complex human/technological systems, including engineering, healthcare, service, and logistical/transportation systems. [+]

The industry leaders of tomorrow must earn their credentials today. Enroll in Western New England University’s PhD in Engineering Management and prepare to take your place at the top of your organization. In this full- or part-time program, you will learn the technical depth and gain the breadth of knowledge to become a successful researcher, practitioner, or educator in the management of engineering and technology. You will develop the skills needed to conduct rigorous research in areas related to the improvement, design, and management of projects and programs within complex human/technological systems, including engineering, healthcare, service, and logistical/transportation systems. Applications will be reviewed on a rolling basis after January 15. Entry points: Fall, Winter, Spring, Summer. Admissions Requirements Candidates for the PhD in Engineering Management should possess a master’s or bachelor’s degree in engineering or closely related discipline. A cumulative GPA of at least a 3.5 (4.0 scale) will be required for admission. A GRE score from the last five years, with a combined verbal and quantitative score of at least an 1100 will be required for consideration. GRE revised test conversion chart. Candidates below established GPA and GRE requirements will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Candidates whose primary language is not English will be required to demonstrate proficiency in English. Additional admission requirements include the following: 1) Evidence of completion of a probability and statistics course with a grade of at least a “C” 2) Competence in at least one structured programming language (C++, FORTRAN, Visual BASIC, etc.) Degree Requirements The PhD degree program is designed for both full- and part-time students. Full-time students can complete the program in three to five years and part-time students will be able to complete the program in four to six years. Students who do not successfully complete the PhD program but have met the requirements for the Master of Science in Engineering Management degree will be awarded that degree upon exit from the program. Candidates with a master’s degree will complete 30 credits at the 600 and 700 level and a 27-credit dissertation for 57 total credits. Candidates with a bachelor’s degree will complete 60 credits at the 600 and 700 level and a 27-credit dissertation for 87 total credits. [-]

Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program at CIIS

California Institute of Integral Studies
Campus Full time Part time 3 - 4 years September 2017 USA San Francisco + 1 more

The PsyD Program at CIIS is unique. Located in the heart of San Francisco, ours was the first accredited university in North America to offer programs that connect the insights of Western psychology with Eastern spirituality. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. The Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program at CIIS The PsyD Program at CIIS is unique. Located in the heart of San Francisco, ours was the first accredited university in North America to offer programs that connect the insights of Western psychology with Eastern spirituality. We continue today to present a dynamic clinical psychology curriculum that combines the latest scientific research with the world's great wisdom traditions. We believe that such a synthesis permits deep understanding of the human condition, as well as insight into the most effective ways of helping those in need. The PsyD Program is carefully designed to prepare students for practice-focused careers in clinical psychology. As a member of the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP), our practitioner-scholar training model provides broad and general education in clinical psychology that, in addition, integrates depth-psychological, societal, ecological, and spiritual dimensions of human experience into the curriculum. Full time students who enter the program with Regular Standing (those who enter with a BA) typically take three to four years to complete coursework. This is followed by the internship, which takes one year if it is a full-time internship (about forty hours a week), two years if it is a part-time internship (about twenty hours a week). The dissertation also follows coursework and, while it is possible to complete the dissertation in one year, students typically take two years to complete and write up their research. Realistically, a full time student admitted with Regular standing can expect to complete the degree in five to seven years, depending on their choice of internship and the nature of their dissertation project. Advanced - standing students (those who enter with a Master's degree in Psychology, or the equivalent) have the option of completing the program in four years, with three years of reduced-load coursework and concurrent dissertation work, followed by one year of internship. The majority of Advanced Standing students take four and a half to five years to complete the degree Our distinctive approach to clinical psychology training is guided by a vision of clinical practice that emphasizes a holistic and relational approach to the human condition. We teach students the value of open inquiry into self and other. At the center of this inquiry is the whole person who exists in relationship with other persons, with communities, with cultural meaning systems, and with nature. We believe that psychological suffering often has to do with the fracturing of these crucial relationships. Consistent with the visionary CIIS mission, we view the educational process itself as holistic and relational, and we aspire to “walk our talk” as a learning community – one that is creative and transformative on both personal and professional levels. Our course offerings reflect the broad-minded, integrative perspective pioneered at CIIS decades ago. Alan Watts, a leading figure in the transmission of Eastern spirituality to the West, described the American Academy of Asian Studies (which later became CIIS) as “one of the principal roots of what later came to be known, in the early sixties, as the San Francisco Renaissance." During that time, the Bay Area became synonymous with new currents in psychology that continue to transform the field. Like CIIS’s founders, our faculty and students continue to work at psychology’s cutting edge, in its deepest traditions, and toward the project of realizing our most profound human potentials. CIIS is fully accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission (WASC-SASC). The PsyD Program is a member of the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP). Graduates of the PsyD program at CIIS are eligible for licensure as psychologists in California and many other states. The San Francisco Bay Area is at the forefront of change in psychology, especially at CIIS. We welcome you to come visit us and learn more about the CIIS/Bay Area psychology experience. Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program Licensure Graduates of the PsyD program at CIIS are eligible for licensure as psychologists in California and many other states. In fact, over the last five years, according to the EPPP published data, CIIS students scored higher on the national examination than graduates of any APA approved PsyD program in the Bay Area. Apply to the Clinical Psychology (PsyD) Program Emphasizing preparation for clinical practice this program combines rigorous scholarship, supervised clinical experience and practica and internships. PsyD students fulfill a diversity and identity competency requirement by taking three courses connecting clinical practice with culture and ethnicity, gender and sexuality, and religion and spirituality. For field experience students can apply to over 90 community agencies, serving a diverse mix of clients. Additionally, they have access to the Institute's exciting array of public programs. Our training philosophy comprises four components: learning in a multicultural context, which integrates practica and classroom work a relational model of learning and training significant reflection on one's clinical practice broad range of scholarship Admission Requirements Admission Application Non-refundable $65 Application Fee Degree Requirement: An undergraduate degree (BA, BS, or the equivalent) from an accredited college or university in Psychology or 12 semester units/18 quarter units of Psychology course work Academic Prerequisites: 12 semester units/18 quarter units of Psychology course work including a Statistics course. Transcripts: Official transcripts from all accredited academic institutions attended within the United States. Transcripts must arrive in their official, sealed envelopes. Minimum GPA of 3.0 at the undergraduate degree-granting institution - for final 60 semester units or 90 quarter units of course work. Academic Writing Sample: A writing sample of eight to ten pages (typed, double-spaced) that demonstrates your capacity to think critically and reflectively and demonstrates graduate level writing abilities. A sample that uses outside sources must include proper citations. You may submit copies of previous work, such as a recent academic paper, article, or report that reflects scholarly abilities. Two Letters of Recommendation: Letters of recommendation will be accepted from academic advisors, professors, professional supervisors, or someone able to attest to your maturity, motivation, and ability to undertake the work required for the PsyD Program. Recommenders should use standard business format and include full contact information-name, email, phone number, and mailing address. Goal Statement: A one-page (typed, double-spaced) statement of your educational and professional objectives. Autobiographical Statement: A four-to-six page (typed, double-spaced) self-reflective, lifespan autobiographical statement discussing your values, emotional and spiritual insights, aspirations, and life experiences that have led to the decision to apply to the PsyD program. International students and individuals who have studied at institutions outside the US and Canada may have additional requirements. Advanced Standing A limited number of Advanced Standing students who have completed an MA or MS degree in psychology (or equivalent) with a GPA of 3.25 and completed 500 practicum hours may be admitted each year. Advanced Standing students complete a reduced number of units in a program that is designed on a case by case basis depending on prior graduate coursework. Students admitted with Advanced Standing must complete all required courses at CIIS or demonstrate prior completion through submission and review of syllabi from prior coursework. Spring Admission into the Psychology Doctoral Program Once accepted into the PsyD program, a limited number of students have the option to enroll in some courses for the spring or summer semester before their Fall semester begins. With the approval of the PsyD department, students can enroll in selected courses prior to commencement of the fall semester, later to join the fall cohort. Students who employ this option reduce the number of courses required during their first and/or second years of study. This option may provide greater latitude to curriculum planning for individual students. Students who begin to take classes in the spring or summer semesters are considered members of the student cohort that officially begins in the fall semester of the year that they are admitted and will move through the practicum sequence with that cohort. [-]

PhD, MSc, BSc in Marine Biology

University of North Carolina Wilmington
Campus Full time September 2017 USA Wilmington

Modern Biology increasingly impacts the non-scientific world, facilitating solutions to technological, environmental, ethical, philosophical and political issues that are important to society. [+]

Biology & Marine Biology Mission Modern Biology increasingly impacts the non-scientific world, facilitating solutions to technological, environmental, ethical, philosophical and political issues that are important to society. The Department of Biology and Marine Biology at UNCW strives to train the next generation of scientists and educators, and prepare all students to make sound judgments based on a solid foundation of biological principles. The department provides an environment in which excellent teaching coupled with diverse research opportunities encourage our faculty to become leaders in their discipline. Our teaching emphasizes current theories of biological science, knowledge of basic investigative skills, and methods of critical inquiry. Our research programs, in both applied and basic aspects of discovery, value investigations of biological phenomena that impact the quality of life in our region and beyond. We lend our professional expertise to all endeavors that work for the improvement of the human condition and our environment. We believe the importance of modern biological principles must transcend the university classroom and enable our students to contribute as global citizens. Degrees Offered The Department of Biology and Marine Biology offers the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in biology, the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in marine biology, both of which prepare students for advanced study, and the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in biology, a more flexible program which can be designed to meet personal educational goals. Students may also choose professional programs in Teacher Certification for Secondary Science (Biological Sciences) or Pre-professional programs in the Health Sciences. Graduate degrees offered by the Department of Biology and Marine Biology include the Master of Science (M.S.) in biology, the Master of Science (M.S.) in marine biology, and the Ph.D. in marine biology. Facilities Undergraduate courses are taught mostly in the Dobo and Friday Halls. These facilities include state-of-the-art lecture halls, teaching laboratories, seminar rooms, and a computer lab. Many faculty members have their offices and research laboratories in these buildings as well. The Department of Biology and Marine Biology also has extensive facilities in the Center for Marine Science located a short distance from the campus. Facilities at the Center for Marine Science include a classroom, a large teaching laboratory, aquarium and collection rooms, and smaller laboratories for student research. In addition, some Biology and Marine Biology faculty members have their offices and laboratory space at CMS. The department maintains a modern 2250-square-foot greenhouse, a vertebrate range, and a herbarium. The Kresge Greenhouse provides facilities for faculty and student research projects and for laboratory exercises. The vertebrate range allows preparation and storage of vertebrate research and teaching collections. The herbarium is the repository for dried collections of algae, fungi, bryophytes and vascular plants. The function and activities of the herbarium include documentation of the vegetation of the regions in which the specimens are collected, serving as a source of teaching and research material and serving as a source of information to persons interested in the identification of plants. Classroom and laboratory instruction is supplemented by field trips to adjacent oceanic, estuarine and terrestrial natural laboratories, including the Bluthenthal Wildflower Preserve and the Ev-Henwood Nature Preserve. Ph.D. Program The Department of Biology and Marine Biology offers a program of study and research leading to the doctor of philosophy in marine biology. The program provides students with a broad background and overview of the fields comprising marine biology and make use of the diverse interests of the marine biology faculty within the department. As is generally the case, the Ph.D. program is primarily a research degree. As such, it is intended to serve students with interests in conducting research in academia, industry, and government along with those who intend to become faculty in undergraduate teaching institutions, managers in technology-based industries and policy makers in government. Students will learn the process of identifying, defining and solving an original research problem. The program also includes a teaching practicum with classroom instruction in pedagogical techniques and technologies along with lecture experience under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Ph.D. Marine Biology Student Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome #1a: A graduate student should be able to develop a research plan. Learning Outcome #1b: A graduate student should be able to present and defend a research plan. Learning Outcome #2: A graduate student should be able to independently answer questions regarding their research field. Learning Objective #3: A graduate student should be able to communicate his or her research to a broadly-trained public audience. Learning Objective #4: A graduate student should be able to write up his or her research in the form of a manuscript for publication in a scientific journal. Documents to be submitted for admission: All applicants must submit: An application for graduate admission Official transcripts of all college work (undergraduate and graduate) Official scores on the Graduate Record Examination (verbal, quantitative, analytical writing and subject test in biology) Three recommendations with accompanying letters by individuals in professionally relevant fields, one from the intended faculty mentor. Official score on the TOEFL (if applicable). TOEFL scores are good for two years from the date the test is administered. Current curriculum vitae Detailed summary of M.S. thesis research (maximum of three pages) Statement of interest for Ph.D. research (maximum of three pages) Reprints or copies of any publications (if applicable) Application and supporting documents must be submitted by the published deadline M.S. Programs The graduate programs in marine biology and biology are designed (1) to prepare students for further graduate work leading to a Ph.D.; (2) to provide professional biologists with advanced research and educational opportunities; (3) to prepare students as managers of coastal and marine resources, trained to deal with contemporary problems in the environment; and (4) to provide students with a broad-based graduate program allowing for specialization in the diverse fields of inquiry represented by the faculty of the department. M.S. Biology and Marine Biology Student Learning Outcomes Learning Outcome #1a: A graduate student should be able to develop a research plan. Learning Outcome #1b: A graduate student should be able to present and defend a research plan. Learning Outcome #2: A graduate student should be able to independently answer questions regarding their research field. Learning Objective #3: A graduate student should be able to communicate his or her research to a broadly-trained public audience. Learning Objective #4: A graduate student should be able to write up his or her research in the form of a manuscript for publication in a scientific journal. Admission Criteria Applicants seeking admission to the graduate programs in marine biology and biology are required to submit all of the following to the Graduate School: An application for graduate admission Official transcripts of all college work (undergraduate and graduate) Official scores on the General Test of the Graduate Record Examination (verbal, quantitative, analytical writing) Three recommendations by individuals in professionally relevant fields Resume Research Areas Form/Statement of Interest Form Application Deadlines Students may be admitted to the programs at the beginning of any academic semester. The Graduate School must receive completed applications by June 15 midnight EST for fall enrollment and November 30 midnight EST for spring enrollment. Assistantships are generally awarded to students prior to the beginning of the fall semester. To be considered for an assistantship, completed applications for fall admission must be received by the Graduate School no later than March 15 midnight EST. Teaching Assistantships Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching 2 to 3 laboratory sections each semester in introductory (100 & 200 level), intermediate (300 level) and some advanced (400 level) courses. GTAs are not responsible for lecture sections of any course. Teaching responsibilities of GTAs are restricted to a short introduction to the laboratory, to the oversight of the conducting of the laboratory, and to the grading of laboratory reports and quizzes. GTAs teaching 2 laboratory sections generally have some preparatory responsibility for a laboratory. All GTAs are under the direct supervision of the faculty member in charge of the course. Program Attributes The Department of Biology and Marine Biology of the University of North Carolina Wilmington began offering the master of science in marine biology program in 1980 and the master of science in biology in 1989. Since the inception of these programs, we have graduated 458 students. The programs have gained an international reputation and have averaged 110 applications per year over the past six years for fall admission. The programs are selective, admitting 20% of applicants on average. The rate of matriculation of accepted students has also been high, with a mean of 88% for the past three years. The programs have been highly successful based upon a number of performance measures. Over the past seven years, the modal time to graduation was 2.5 years and the placement rate for graduates in Ph.D. programs and jobs in the field has been 92.4%. Graduate students have been extremely prolific in both publishing scientific papers and making presentations at regional, national and international scientific meetings. The number of such publications over the past five years has exceeded 70 and presentations number in excess of 120. This represents approximately 1.5 presentations and 1 publication per graduating M.S. student for these years. The graduate programs operate in a dynamic and growing department with a strong and productive faculty. The graduate faculty are all engaged in active research programs, have substantial records of publication and grant support. External funding in the department has more than doubled over the past five years with new grants exceeding $3.2 million this year. The graduate programs also integrate well with strong undergraduate programs in biology and marine biology. Graduate students serve vital roles as teaching assistants for numerous undergraduate laboratory sections. All of the students in the graduate programs are supported with stipends, either as teaching or research assistants. The stipend levels have increased over the period of this review and are currently $11,000. Presently, all of our students who are not classified as North Carolina residents receive a 6-8 credit hour out-of-state tuition remission or grant that pays the difference between in-state and out-of-state tuition. Out-of-state tuition remissions are competitive. Degree Requirements The program requires 30 semester hours of graduate study. Six semester hours of credit may be transferred from another accredited institution. Grades earned on transfer work must be equivalent to “B” or better. A minimum of 24 semester hours of graduate study must be completed in residence. No more than nine hours of graduate level courses offered by other science departments at UNCW may be applied toward the degree. Undergraduate courses taken to make up deficiencies will not count toward the 30 hours required. All deficiencies must be remedied prior to graduation. The student must successfully complete a comprehensive examination based on prior coursework and an oral defense of the thesis. Each student will present a thesis, based on original research, acceptable to the thesis advisory committee, prior to graduation. Each student must complete an approved course of study within five years of the date of the first registration for graduate study. Graduate School Application Deadlines Fall Semester - June 15 midnight EST (Encouraged to apply by March 15 midnight EST) Spring Semester - November 30 midnight EST (Encouraged to apply by October 15 midnight EST Undergraduate Program Requirements for Admission to the Biology or Marine Biology Program 1. Completion of 24 semester hours of credit with at least a 2.0 overall grade point average from an accredited four year university or college; or an associates degree from an accredited two year college. 2. Completion of BIO 201 (Principles of Biology: Cells) and 202 (Principles of Biology: Biodiversity), or equivalent courses with a grade of "C" (2.0) or better in both courses. The Department of Biology and Marine Biology offers five undergraduate degree programs to meet students’ needs. The B.S. Biology degree provides the background needed for further education in graduate or professional schools as well as jobs at the baccalaureate level. This program supports plans for pre-health professionals, pre-veterinary science, conservation biology, and molecular or clinical interests. The B.S. Marine Biology degree provides a firm foundation in the biological sciences with an emphasis on marine biology, preparing the student for graduate study in marine biology or for jobs at the baccalaureate level. This program makes full use of the natural laboratories provided by nearby ocean, marsh, tidal flat and estuarine habitats surrounding the campus. The B.A. Biology degree is a flexible program that can be designed by the student and advisor to meet personal educational goals or specific licensure requirements on both the undergraduate/graduate level. Classroom and laboratory instruction is supplemented by field trips to adjacent oceanic, estuarine, and terrestrial laboratories. The department maintains a modern 2,250 square-foot greenhouse, extensive plant and animal collections, and a state-of-the-art microscopy center. Additionally, UNCW manages several terrestrial and marine areas used for classroom activities and the Center for Marine Science providing access and support for marine and estuarine work. Opportunities for Involvement in Research A major emphasis of the programs offered by the Department of Biology and Marine Biology at UNCW is student involvement in research activities. Teaching and research with well-planned laboratory and field studies create opportunities for students to learn and to practice skills necessary for professional development in the sciences. Our faculty encourage student participation in research through a variety of means, including honors work, directed independent research projects, internships, and student research assistantships. These research activities have resulted in opportunities for students to present at scientific meetings and to contribute with faculty to research publications as well as participate in faculty-led, cutting edge research projects. Careers in Biology and Marine Biology A degree in biology or marine biology provides the background for entrance into many exciting careers in the biological sciences, including biomedical professions, teaching, environmental work, work with agencies, both public and private, as well as research and collaboration in the fields within the discipline. Many of our graduates become leaders and innovators working in exciting careers for state or federal agencies, colleges or universities, biomedical or veterinary firms, private companies, or conservation organizations. Teaching in public schools or at the college level is a critical need in a knowledge-based economy and a career pursued by many of our graduates. Students in the department have access to a full-time departmental advisor as well as faculty advisors for marine and environmental sciences, medical/professional schools, pre-veterinarian careers, and other biological disciplines. Requirements for Admission to a Major in Biology or Marine Biology A student may declare a major in biology or marine biology after completing BIO 201 and BIO 202, or equivalent courses, with a grade of “C” (2.00) or better in both courses, and the completion of a minimum of 24 semester hours of credit. Transfer students wishing to declare a major in biology or marine biology must meet admission requirements, which are: completion of 24 semester credit hours from an accredited four-year college or university and a 2.00 grade point average in two biology courses with labs, preferably BIO 201 and BIO 202 , or equivalents; or, completion of an associate degree from an accredited two-year college and a 2.00 grade point average in two biology courses with labs. Students who apply to the Department of Biology and Marine Biology and do not meet the admission requirements will be considered pre-majors. All students who desire a degree in biology or marine biology must meet the admissions requirements and declare a major to be eligible to graduate. [-]

PhD in Consumer, Apparel, and Retail Studies

University of North Carolina Greensboro
Campus Full time 60 hours August 2017 USA Greensboro

For those who imagine themselves as university professors sharing their passion for Consumer, Apparel and Retail studies with future students, a PhD in the field is an outstanding course of study to pursue. By delving deep into exciting topics ranging from marketing to consumer behavior, you will gain an expert’s understanding of the industry and how to apply your knowledge for success in the field. The CARS graduate program of study leading to the doctor of philosophy degree requires a minimum of 60 hours (90 beyond the BS) and the completion of a dissertation. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. PhD in Consumer, Apparel, and Retail Studies For those who imagine themselves as university professors sharing their passion for Consumer, Apparel, and Retail studies with future students, a PhD in the field is an outstanding course of study to pursue. By delving deep into exciting topics ranging from marketing to consumer behavior, you will gain an expert’s understanding of the industry and how to apply your knowledge for success in the field. The CARS graduate program of study leading to the doctor of philosophy degree requires a minimum of 60 hours (90 beyond the BS) and the completion of a dissertation. Sample doctoral courses include: CRS 712: Theory Development in Consumer, Apparel and Retail Studies Examination of business related marketing theories. Analysis of marketing theories, models, and conceptual frameworks. Includes business-to-business, consumer, customer relationship and economic theories. CRS 713: Qualitative Methodology in Consumer, Apparel and Retail Studies Exploration of development and use of qualitative research methodology. Focus on application of qualitative methodology to diverse research problems, data collection procedures, and analysis approaches. CRS 721: Consumer Behavior in Apparel and Retailing Current theories and research in consumer behavior. Application of consumer behavior models to apparel, apparel-related products and retailing through individualized research projects. This school offers programs in: English [-]

Political Science

International University Alliance
Campus Full time Part time September 2017 USA Boston

Whether you want to explore issues facing the public officials who caucus in buildings just blocks from campus, or master international relations, political science students receive broad exposure to the discipline, while gaining an understanding about how politics, government and governance shape the world and its quality of citizenship. [+]

Political Science Whether you want to explore issues facing the public officials who caucus in buildings just blocks from campus, or master international relations, political science students receive broad exposure to the discipline, while gaining an understanding about how politics, government and governance shape the world and its quality of citizenship. What to Expect As a political science major, you will be selecting courses from fields such as American politics, comparative politics, international relations, public administration and policy, and political theory, while also developing one or two individualized areas of interest. You will learn how to research the answers to important questions related to politics, political values and public policy. You will benefit from a wide variety of course offerings and have the opportunity to complete a public service internship to gain hands-on experience. Graduate Degrees D Ph.D. in Political Science The College of Arts and Sciences offers a Ph.D. in political science. The doctoral program has produced many distinguished academics and public leaders, both nationally and abroad. [-]

EdD/PhD, Leadership, Higher Education

Concordia University Chicago Online
Campus or Online Open Enrollment USA Chicago

The Concordia University Chicago Department of Leadership is at the forefront in providing educators with quality, relevant and current graduate education, which enhances the leadership of public and nonpublic teachers and administrators as they positively impact schools. [+]

Doctoral Programs in USA 2017. The Concordia University Chicago Department of Leadership is at the forefront in providing educators with quality, relevant and current graduate education, which enhances the leadership of public and nonpublic teachers and administrators as they positively impact schools. We advocate for our doctoral degree candidates and all students in the public and nonpublic schools. We are reflective professionals who provide quality, relevant, and current education for our graduate candidates in leadership. We prepare our candidates to be teacher and administrator leaders guiding public and nonpublic schools in the service of students so that they may become effective citizens in a global society. About the Degree This doctoral program prepares candidates for public or non-public district-wide administrative responsibilities. The program is designed to help the doctoral candidate: Promote the success of all students through developing and implementing a shared vision of learning which supports the learning process. Develop advanced skills in management of the organization, operations and resources for a safe, efficient and effective learning environments in schools and the district. Collaborate with staff, boards of education, students, families and community members in response to diverse educational and community interests and needs as well as mobilize community resources. Demonstrate integrity, fairness and ethical behavior to support and advance the development of a moral educational community. Understand and respond to the larger political, social, economic, legal and cultural contexts. Program Competencies and Outcomes Demonstrate Instructional Leadership Competency: Analyze instructional programs and student performance data to support success for all students. Outcomes: Candidates demonstrate an understanding of a variety of instructional research methodologies and can analyze the comparable strengths and weaknesses of each method. Candidates are able to use qualitative and quantitative data, appropriate research methods, technology and information systems to develop a long-range plan for a district that assesses the district’s improvement and accountability systems. Candidates demonstrate the ability to use and promote technology and information systems to enrich district curriculum and instruction, monitor instructional practices and provide assistance to administrators who have needs for improvement. Candidates demonstrate the ability to allocate and justify resources to sustain the instructional program. Candidates demonstrate the ability to facilitate and engage in activities that use best practices and sound educational research to improve instructional programs. Candidates demonstrate an ability to assist school and district personnel in understanding and applying best practices for student learning. Candidates understand and can apply concern for diversity, human development theory, and proven learning and motivational theories to the learning process. Candidates understand how to use appropriate research strategies to profile student performance in a district and analyze differences among subgroups. Demonstrate Ethical Supervision Leadership Competency: Evaluate school climate, culture and professional staff to assure provision of support for success of all students. Outcomes: Candidates demonstrate knowledge of adult learning strategies and the ability to apply technology and research to professional development design focusing on authentic problems and tasks, mentoring, coaching, conferencing and other techniques that promote new knowledge and skills in the workplace. Candidates demonstrate the ability to use strategies such as observations and collaborative reflection to help form comprehensive professional growth plans with district and school personnel. Candidates develop individual professional growth plans that reflect commitment to life-long learning and best practices. Demonstrate Effective, Practical and Ethical Management Leadership Skills Competency: Plan for the effective use of fiscal, human and material resources to promote the success of all students within a safe, effective and efficient learning environment. Outcomes: Candidates demonstrate the ability to use research-based knowledge of learning, teaching, student development, organizational development and data management to optimize learning for all students. Candidates demonstrate effective organization of fiscal, human and material resources, giving priority to student learning and safety while demonstrating an understanding of district budgeting processes and fiduciary responsibilities. Candidates demonstrate the ability to organize a district based on indicators of equity, effectiveness and efficiency and can apply legal principles that promote equity. Candidates demonstrate an understanding of how to apply legal principles to promote and provide safe, effective and efficient facilities. Demonstrate the Ability to Communicate Effectively with Parents and Other Community Members Competency: Engage the outside community in support of ensuring the success of all students. Outcomes: Candidates demonstrate the ability to facilitate the planning and implementation of programs and services that bring together the resources of families and the community to positively affect student learning. Candidates demonstrate an ability to use public information and research-based knowledge of issues and trends to collaborate with community members and community organizations to have a positive effect on student learning. Candidates apply an understanding of community-relations models, marketing strategies and processes, data-driven decision-making, and communication theory to craft frameworks for school, business, community, government and higher education partnerships. Candidates demonstrate an ability to develop and implement a plan for nurturing relationships with community leaders and reaching out to different business, religious, political and service organizations to strengthen programs and support district goals. Candidates demonstrate the ability to involve community members, groups and other stakeholders in district decision-making, reflecting an understanding of strategies to capitalize on the district’s integral role in the larger community. Candidates demonstrate the ability to collaborate with community agencies to integrate health, social and other services in the schools to address student and family conditions that affect learning. Candidates demonstrate the ability to conduct community relations that model effective media relations practices. Candidates develop and implement strategies that support the involvement of families in the education of their children, reinforcing among district staff the confidence that families have the best interests of their children in mind. Understand Diverse Populations Competency: Demonstrate awareness and sensitivity to the needs of all students to assure educational success within the schools and the district. Outcomes: Candidates employ current knowledge of rules and regulations governing education for sub populations (i.e., special education, talented and gifted, ELL, ethnic subgroups). Candidates demonstrate respect for the rights of others with regard to confidentiality, dignity and honesty. Candidates assess data and determine needs for serving sub-populations to assure school success and appropriate achievement. Candidates support programs and services that celebrate and support the diverse nature of the schools and the district. Understand the Larger Context Competency: Collaborate with relevant entities beyond the school to support the success of all students. Outcomes: Candidates demonstrate the ability to use appropriate research methods, theories and concepts to improve district operations. Candidates demonstrate an understanding of the complex causes of poverty and other disadvantages and their effects on families, communities, children and learning. Candidates demonstrate an understanding of the policies, laws and regulations enacted by local, state and federal authorities affecting a specific district. Candidates can explain the system for financing public schools and its effects on the equitable distribution of educational opportunities within a district. Candidates demonstrate the ability to work with political leaders at the local, state and national level. Candidates can apply an understanding of how specific laws at the local, state and federal level affect school districts and residents. Candidates advocate positions in response to proposed policy changes that would benefit or harm districts and explain how proposed policies and laws might improve educational and social opportunities for specific communities. [-]